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Global politics is an issue of international concern as it interests every country in the world. There are conflicts going on everywhere in the world often orchestrated by the world stable states. These countries always look for ways to continue being the leaders as there are huge benefits of being a global leader. These countries have a way of getting resources from the other countries on the periphery. Immense benefits arise with being a world leader, which include United States of America, France, The Great Britain, Italy, Germany and The People’s Republic of China. They strive to do whatever they can so that they can remain to control the world in all the sectors of life. They try to establish relations with other countries and as a result of this they dominate the other countries and benefit from the immense resources often untapped by these countries that are not developed.

As a consequence of these struggles, we have seen conflicts emerging over the dominance of these countries. This situation is my primary concern in this research paper. The top countries struggle to fight to gain control of the world, and this has resulted in technological advancements by these countries so as to maintain their superiority in the world order (Heywood, 2011). This situation is the reason behind the conflicts and lack of peace among countries in the world. Most of the violence witnessed in the world today are orchestrated due to political motives as will be evident in this research work.






Global Politics

In this discussion of world politics, I will base my arguments on the Marxists approaches on the world politics and wars. According to this approach, the Marxists believe in the situation whereby the primary states dominate the other countries on the periphery. Major states may include countries like the United States of America, The People’s Republic of China, Germany, and France. The countries on the periphery may include, countries of the third world like African countries.

Marxism is characterized by the following fundamental principles that govern its ideals. The first principle is the belief that social life is based on conflict of interest. The interest is between those who own and control the means of production in the society and those who just sell their labor to the capitalists. The Marxists also believe that at any time, there would be two great classes involved in a capitalist’s society with factions from each part of the classes.

Marxism also believes in the idea of leadership with the consent of the led. There are three ways in which those in governance have managed to consolidate this principle. It occurs by the use of force, that is, the use of the police and the army. It is also displayed by use of ideologies by using mass media and teachers in schools. Another important characteristic of Marxism involves the concept of alienation in which capitalist’s societies have undermined those participating in the production of goods. This condition in a way is a form of oppression by the capitalists. These are just but a few of the principles that govern Marxism.

The Marxists theory emphasizes a dominance by the stronger states over, the weaker states. The capitalists are those countries that continuously oppress the countries that own the means of production and have always undermined these countries by ensuring that they do not gain recognition of the products coming of in the end. The capitalists have a way rebranding the goods and services in a way that succeeds entirely to disregard the producers who are from the fewer powerful states.

Another ideal of the Marxist approach is that which emphasizes leadership on the consent of the led. This position is indeed correct in that, among the major states we have leadership done through a democratic process so that the continued oppression lacks significant questioning from the other major states globally. The decisions taken by the major states are always discussed in fora that are influential world over. Hence, everybody is signatory to such decisions.  There are representatives who mostly come from the states on the periphery and they end up being compromised by these other major states. As a result of this they continue to rule world over, and this results in the dominance that I am discussing

Another ideal of the Marxists is the existence of two extreme classes in the capitalist society. According to Marxists, there are factions that exist in these classes and the capitalists have always struggled to maintain the highest in the hierarchy   (Nelson & Grossberg, 1988). By this way, they control a larger part that is those who control the biggest companies and in that way they continue to monitor the world. For instance, even though the major states are not the major producers of crude oil they have continued to enjoy a larger percentage of global oil exploration tenders. It occurs due to the capacity they have in such matters and also the resources they have. It is because of this reason that they have continued to rule the world by creating two extreme classes between the producers. It is to ensure monopoly of the market for goods and services.




In this discussion, I would like to relate to the well-known Iraq wars that took place in the year 2003 under the leadership of the then President George W. Bush. This wars happened when Saddam Hussein led Iraq. This war lasted a decade, and its primary intention was to topple the government of Saddam Hussein. The United States withdrew officially from the wars in 2011, but they still have their troops in Iraq. The United States combined armies with United Kingdom and several allied countries during this war, and it was a surprise attack that had no prior warning. The attacks led to the collapse of Saddam Hussein government.

The Marxist theory relates well to this war that directly involved the United States. It is clear that the United States are the capitalists under this circumstance that are a bigger state seeking dominance over Iraq. The United States is endowed with resources that make them a stronger state compared to Iraq, in this case. Due to the situation that it is a big state, it seeks the support of the other major states. Such a move enables them to continue to fight wars in Iraq and gain control of the country and topple its leadership. The United States Army quickly won the wars in Iraq. They had advanced technology on warfare and used their resources to conquer Iraq. This condition clearly shows their dominance in terms of technological advancement.

On the other hand, Iraq is a country that is blessed with a natural resource of crude oil and a very high percentage of its economy heavily depends on and gas products. Such a fact makes Iraq a country that owns a natural resource that interests a bigger state that is the United States, in this case. This position brings me to the principle of Marxist that is about conflict of interest between those who possess and regulate the resources for production and those who sell their labor to capitalists. In this case, the conflict of interest is between the Iraq government headed by Saddam Hussein at that time and the United States which is interested in the natural resource hence the cause of war at that time.

According to the principle that dwells in the belief of leadership with the consent of the led, it clearly applies in this context. The whole war in Iraq was because of the approval of the top leadership forum. It was also approved by the United Nation Security Council based on the arguments of the United States government report to the council (Mansbach & Rhodes, 2009). They were even allowed to use force such as the utilization of the army in war to fight Iraq by the Security Council. This state is seen in that they even have a coalition in this war from the United Kingdom and other allies.

Another important principle is that which emphasizes the dominance of the stronger countries over, the weaker ones. In this case, the higher country is the United States over, the weaker one that is Iraq. The United States dominated the war and came out victorious after a short while, and they captured the incumbent who was later prosecuted in a military court. This dominance was in terms of the army the United States had taken to war and the weapons they used which overcame the army of Saddam Hussein. All these principles of Marxists relate the war in Iraq to Marxist theory. Hence, the theory is applicable to the conflict that took place

There are several factors that led to the war in Iraq that as stated earlier was a surprise attack. Some of the reasons put forward to the Security Council prior to this war from the administration of President Bush. Issues raised were that Iraq was in possession of weapons of mass destruction and that Saddam posed a risk to the United States government and its allied partners who all wanted to fight him. Another factor that led to the war that Saddam was supporting al-Qaida that is a world terror threat to date. Finally, the United States had a reason to bring to an end the dictatorship that was carried out by Saddam’s Ba’ath Party. Its intention was to bring the dictatorship to a halt and ensure that there was multiparty, and democracy prevailed in Iraq.

It is because of this war that United States brought to an end the dictatorship of that time under the leadership of Saddam Hussein. As a result, the country went to a democratic election and came up with a new Prime Minister in 2005.The Prime Minister, Maliki remained in office from 2006 to 2014.The united states has not yet removed its troupes from Iraq due to diplomatic reasons. The new prime minister and his government on the other end have put policies in place to guarantee that democracy within the country is enhanced. This situation has ensured that there is peace in the region.

For this discussion, I wish to express the following in the areas of international, economic and human security. I want to say emphatically that there always is an alternative to war, and peaceful coexistence is vital in the growth of a society. On international security, the United States should involve other countries in its peace deals make sure they feel part of the process of making peace   (Smith, Chatfield & Pagnucco, 1997). They also should eliminate barriers that have been put in terms of political negotiations with countries on the periphery. Another important policy I would recommend is that which ensures equity for those smaller states that engage in bilateral deals with the United States. All these countries are stakeholders in one way or another and should be accorded the equal chance at the high table.


Negotiations are also a way to solve conflicts and therefore policies created should be able to allow exploration of options available and at all times ensure that there is peace between conflicting parties (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2014). International securities facilitate positive international relationships that, as a result, leads to the right relations in bilateral agreements. I believe that war is evitable in many circumstances if available options are explored thoroughly. I, therefore, champion for policies that strengthen diplomatic relations. This situation can be realized if schemes are put to deal with security because as a country the United States also needs other countries on international grounds for the benefit of its population.

On economic security, there are various strategies that should be set to certify that the monetary concerns of the United States is protected. To ensure stable economies in these major states, they should be at the forefront championing for world peace. These circumstances can also be achieved when they take part in peace building initiative in countries that hold the world economies like Iran and Iraq. These countries are some of the major oil producers in the world. Lack of peace in such areas automatically affect the global economy, which includes the economic stability of the United States. The United States ought to be welcoming to partners regardless of the disparity that exists in terms of superiority. Some smaller states hold a lot of promise in terms of untapped resources that could be of immense benefit to the economic security of United States.


Another strategy would be to ensure that they maintain economic security by certifying they capitalize the position they have as the world’s superpower. This way they could offer attractive deals to the producers of limited global resources like energy and oil. This strategy ensures that they do not end up in a war over economic issues, and this results in economic security (Küng, 1998).

Finally, I would like to appreciate the importance of human safety in a big country like The United States. Security for the American citizen is important, and the government has to put strategies in place to protect its citizen. I wish to recommend the government to create awareness among the citizens. This awareness could easily be done by use of media to lets the citizens be aware of the importance of being vigilant. The government can also educate its youth in schools on the importance of security to a country. This situation is also accomplished by necessitating that citizens are taught good morals that help them to be good ambassadors and of good morals. It is only through this that the United States could act as champions for human rights world over.






















Goldstein, J. S., & Pevehouse, J. C. (2014). International relations.

Heywood, A. (2011). Global politics. Houndmills, Basingstoke Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Küng, H. (1998). A global ethic for global politics and economics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mansbach, R. W., & Rhodes, E. J. (2009). Global politics in a changing world: A reader. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Nelson, C., & Grossberg, L. (1988). Marxism and the interpretation of culture. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Smith, J., Chatfield, C., & Pagnucco, R. (1997). Transnational social movements and global politics: Solidarity beyond the state. Syracuse, N.Y: Syracuse University Press.




Marketers Find Effective Communication With Pinterest





Marketers Find Effective Communication With Pinterest

How marketers use Pinterest to improve marketing communications.

Through posting of images for advertisement purposes.

Marketing communications improves when a company posts pictures with information about a particular brand or introduction of a new brand. Most pictures communicate a thousand words without necessarily putting words in it. A company introduces a new brand of product e.g. a new shoe suited for mountain climbing. They can take pictures of someone walking with the shoes on top of a mountain from different angles. When the pictures are posted online through the Pinterest, Pinterest users can study the image and learn how to wear the shoe on mountainous areas. Some customers prefer looking at the pictures rather than listening to a marketer.

Moreover, when there is a change in a particular commodity, the company takes pictures of the new product from different angles and show the viewers what has changed from the old brand. This is an easy method of marketing communication because you only use a minimal time to convince a buyer rather than face to face communication.

Through adding a small description on posts and pins.

Adding a description to a published picture gives the customer an easy task to understand more about what you have posted. When a picture is too complicated to comprehend, displaying small description gives the viewers an option to get the information that they did not get from the image.

Through posting of videos.

A company may increase its marketing communication through uploading of a video that explain a particular change or the introduction of something new. This makes it easy to elaborate a particular issue to the customer.

Why it might be better to post an image that conveys an emotional response rather than a mere advertisement.

Human beings possess an emotional part that is easily convinced when someone uses an emotional act or thing. An image with an emotional response is far much better than a mere advertisement because when feeling is involved, majority of the people feel touched, concerned or even feel pity when they see something that is emotional. Convincing someone who is emotionally moved is very easy because the power to resist anything is usually lowered, and the majority of people end up saying yes to things that they did not intend to buy. Simple advertisements that lack emotional touch can end up being ignored.

Pinterest as a customer relationship management tool


Pinterest can act as a customer relationship management tool through crowdsourcing. For example, when the business can request customers to send pictures of themselves holding a specific brand or product. The company can decide to give vouchers to any person who send a particular type of picture.

Improving sales.

Posting of eye-catching images and captions that are thoughtful can encourage the users to follow the company’s link to its website. That is, excellent pictures and lovely captions can convince customers to purchase a particular brand.

Excellent networking opportunity.

The Pinterest followers can easily interact with the organization. For example, they can comment on the pins made by the company, and a conversation with the followers can start thus providing a platform to interact easily with the customers.

Posting videos.

Pinterest provides a platform where a company may post videos for the customers to see, for example, a how to do video. This makes is it easy to explain or advertise something to the client.




Effect of chocolates on human memory






Effect of chocolates on human memory












Effect of chocolates on human memory.

Recent psychological and medical research on the human memory has shown variations in the ability of the human mind to remember things after the consumption of chocolate. This study was conducted to investigate the same effect but on the basis of gender. It will be relevant to psychology practitioners and doctors in trying to find information from the patients (Joel, 2008).

The hypothesis used is that chocolate consumption improves female memory more than male memory (1 tailed null hypothesis).This belief relies on the previous researches done on human psychology that showed significant improvements in female memory and therefore coming up with a definite hypothesis.

The method used is sampling and the use of questionnaires. Sampling was the best method of collecting participants as it is less time-consuming, practical and would give immediate results. Questionnaire were used to save the time for one on one interviews with the participants (Osteen, 2011).

The dependent variable is gender i.e. either man or woman and the independent variable include number of questions asked and the types of questions.

The research was conducted on 100 participants with 50% of them being men. They were all aged between the ages of 18-22 as it is considered the period when the brain is very active. The participants were all top performing students from the various colleges they were picked obtained.

The research was conducted at different times of the day with the first test at 8:00 am and no chocolates were used. The procedure involved reading out a prose essay in history and then answering a questionnaire after two hours. In the afternoon session conducted at 2:00 pm each participant was given 250 grams chocolate to eat an hour before reading a different essay. They were then giving them a questionnaire to answer two hours after the article was read.

The Assumptions include:

  1. All the participants were attentive during the essay reading
  2. The intelligence quotient of all the participants was the same

Most improvements were observed in the female members with 40 of them showing a significant above 20% growth, and the 10 showed an average 10 percent improvement in the second essay. The male also showed a relative improvement with 35 men improving by above 10% and the rest, not more than 7%. Relative improvement percentage was used as grading criteria.

From data analysis, the data collected showed a relative improvement in the human memory due to consumption of chocolates, most significant improvements being observed in females.

In conclusion, chocolate consumption leads improvement of the human memory (Andrew, & Anthony, 2012). Conducting the research was not simple as it involved dealing with a significant sample of participants with the greatest challenge being to analyze the results. I believe this research work provided me with a useful skill that will be necessary for my future career.




Andrew, C., & Anthony, S. (2012). Food and Nutrition. Journal of Healthy Diet, 26(3), pp. 22-40.

Joel, A. (2008). Human Memory. Journal of Human Psychology, 34(2), pp. 35-50.

Osteen, M. (2011). Research Analysis. Journal of Statistics, 25(3), pp. 25-47.







(Author’s name)


(Institutional Affiliation)








Type of data in this project.

There are two broad categories of data classification namely qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data is information that is not collected in terms of numerical figures such as 1, 2 and 11 up to n but can be qualified using descriptive words such as the type of colors, for example, red or blue. Quantitative data is the data that can be expressed in terms of numbers either discrete numbers or continuous figures (Lee, 2014). Examples include scores in an examination or the weight of a gas cylinder. In this research we will be dealing with both qualitative and quantitative data because by using the questionnaires, we will be collecting information regarding the gender and the level of education from the various respondents.

When collecting qualitative data, most times the respondents with the same qualities are grouped together for analyzing even though they are the sources of the primary data we are collecting. Respondents will give us the quantitative figures which are the main reasons for this research. Therefore, the people who will share the same or almost similar levels of education, or same gender will be grouped together. Comparisons of the data they filled in the questionnaires will be carried out. The type of data, we will be mainly looking at will be the quantitative data from the questionnaires.

From the side A of the questionnaires, we will expect to record the age of the respondents, the numbers of the respondents in the research, the level of salaries which are all quantitative measures. From side B, we will purely collect quantitative data which will be the figures of the people visiting the Certus Bank in Easley for either

  1. i) Consultations regarding the products the bank offers
  2. ii) The number of people who take the time to look for information from the digital signage media.

iii) Customer satisfaction is a qualitative measure. Since it will be difficult to categorize the responses, we will assign values to a scale of up to 10 where respondents will tick appropriately according to their experiences with the introduction of the digital signage media.

The methods of data analysis.

For this research, we are handling both of the types of data. Therefore, more data analysis techniques will be employed for accurate results as there are many variables such as the different quantities stated in the data to be collected. Once the data is collected, there comes the need to draw conclusions from it and to make sense of the responses we got.

The initial phase will be to consolidate and classify the data relevantly according to the different categories we will have made and summarize the data in a way that will represent the most significant features. Recording of frequencies and variables will be the next step. We will be dealing with a lot of variables which will be giving different frequencies which we must record down either in tabulation or a tally. Differences in the variables will be calculated to determine the variances and, therefore, become closer to the exact numbers we are looking for in order to nullify or support our null hypothesis.

The principal aim of data analysis is to prove that there exists some relationship between the findings and remove the suspicions that the occurrences may have happened by chance (Schmidt, 2014). To analyze our results, we will use the four broad levels of measurement which are the ordinal analysis, interval measurement, nominal measurement and ratio measurements. Nominal size will be used for analyzing the gender since we are only dealing with two types which are the male and the female gender. Ordinal analysis will be assigned to the qualitative data such as the level of education, for example, high school and college. Interval measurements will be used to tell the gap between the time interval taken before the bank gets another visitor. Ratios will come in very handy in trying to analyze the rates for guests visiting the banks before and after the use of digital signage media.
















Lee, H. (2014). Foundations of applied statistical methods.

Schmidt, J. W. (2014). Applied Statistical Methods. Elsevier Science.

















The Counselor As A Person And As A Professional

Countertransference is anything that brings about a distortion in the way therapists perceive and respond to clients. It becomes a problem for clinicians when delivering services to clients especially when it reduces the capacity of the clinicians to perform in a professional way. It becomes a problem when clinicians respond in a rather highly defensive way towards the clients as well as losing objectivity because of their unsolved conflicts. It also becomes a problem when therapists develop romantic and sexual feelings for their customers and when clinicians develop desires for social relationships with clients. To deal with the countertransference at a personal level, I may create a boundary between the clients as it will help reduce the effects of countertransference and also going for therapy sessions to help solve such a problem.

Promoting client dependence becomes an ethical issue when it leads to some undesired phenomenon in the therapeutic relationship. It also becomes an ethical issue when standard practices of engagement between a counselor and a client broken.  An example of fostering client dependency is collusion of the counselors with their clients in trying to make them dependent. It can also occur when the client, may no longer need the treatment but termination of the relationship between the client and the counselor is delayed.

An impaired therapist is a counselor who may be suffering from chronic illnesses or to some extent experiencing a psychological depletion that is a condition that is most likely to affect their performance as a therapist. The condition may prevent effective service delivery to clients and consequently performing below the set standards for the therapists.

Self-care is the urge and practice of clinicians to maintain their selves in terms of psychological and physical well-being. This condition enables them to deliver services and perform as per the needs of their clients. Self-care is an ethical issue because personal vitality is a pre-requisite to functioning in a professional role as a therapist. Self-care improves the health and dispensation of services by a therapist. Self-care is, therefore, a mandatory ethical requirement.

















Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping professions. Belmont, Calif: Brooks/Cole.

System Hack of Anthem Health Insurance Company





System Hack of Anthem Health Insurance Company


USA’s second largest health insurance company Anthem alerted the public as well as its customers that hackers had managed to infiltrate their systems and steal information belonging to over 80 million of the business customers. This occurrence set the record for the world’s largest network breach ever to happen to an insurance company in the year 2003.

The personal information stolen belonging to the members included birthdays, residential addresses, email addresses, medical identification numbers, social security numbers. Income tax information that belonged to all the former and the current employees of the company including its very own chief executive officer were also stolen. 80 million is an enormous number, roughly the combination of the populations of Texas, California, and Illinois. So far, investigations are still ongoing. According to the company’s vice president Kristin Binns, there is still insufficient evidence to conclude that the customer’s personal and medical information was compromised.

How the Information Breach Occurred

Now the big question pops up. What went wrong in the second largest insurance company in the USA that led to 80 million of its customers being exposed to a huge cyber hack? The attack could be due to a significant vulnerability in the company’s security systems (Orr, Tamra 2008). Many cyber experts say that Anthem did not take precautions in protecting their systems from hackers. They did not use encryption to protect its information in the very same way it used to protect information shared or sent outside their database.

Anthems spokesman say that they don’t exactly know the people behind the attack, but many consultants have pointed out that recently, hackers from Chinese have shown enormous interests in getting information from renowned healthcare companies. The most suggested method was that the hackers managed to enter into the systems through very sophisticated software programs. The programs allowed them to gain access to login credentials of one of their employees. This breach therefore gave the hackers access to data of the over 80 million customers.

Loopholes in the System

Although it is not definite how hackers managed to get into the company’s system, it is evident that some gaps and weaknesses existed in the way the information was handled and transferred in the systems. The major weakness being attributed to the hack is the failure to use encryptions in being able to access the data. This measure would have at least prevented the hack or to some extent delayed the hackers’ success in accessing the system. Anthems systems, according to cyber experts, did not concentrate as much on the security matters of the data but rather data handling. This situation gave way and made it easier for the hackers.



Effect of the Hack to Anthem’s Customers

No cases have come out yet where the original members of the health insurance company have emerged to report cases of malicious conmen. The situation although led to many non-members being dragged into giving out personal information and to some extent being robbed.

When information about the hack came out to the whole public, many cyber criminals went out to take advantage of the breach. They started persuading people to take up credit protection services that made them provide personal information.

The Company’s insurer warned the customers about scams that targeted mostly the former and present customers whose information was suspected to be out following the breach. Anthem further notified its customers to avoid emails that may appear to come from anthem and sometimes request recipients to click on a link in the email so as to obtain credit monitoring. The company further said that it would not send any email warnings to its customers because the hack is much severe and deeper than it may appear. To avoid all these, it would communicate to its clients via emails delivered by the postal service of the US. It would also not call its members on issues of the hack and also not ask for any information regarding credit cards and social security numbers via email or phone.

As a measure to protect its customers from being exploited, anthem advised them to:

  1. Take up the offer of Credit monitoring. This action will help the members in being aware if anyone attempts to open a bank account or get credit cards using the members’ names.
  2. Monitor their credit and bank accounts statements more carefully
  • Reach out to credit reporting companies and make a fraud alert that will add some protection and also them alert in case of any attempt to have accounts opened using the member’s name.

However, the biggest misfortune by the customers would be in the case of damages. It would be so hard to sue Anthem. The customers would have to prove that their problems were as a result of the breach and also be able to track back to the hackers who made the attack. The Government could also come in and sanction Anthem but that would not necessarily help a customer who may have experienced financial losses.

Effect of the Breach to the Company’s Reputation.

Clearly, the reputation of the company has been damaged by the attack. A research carried out indicated that many people would opt for other insurance companies rather than Anthem. To prove this further, a woman from California sued Anthem for the failure to secure and protect the customer’s information and including addresses, birth dates, and social security numbers. This suit further brought down the company’s reputation. All the information taken from the corporation’s systems would be all any customer would have to worry about when identity theft arises. The information would be all that would be needed to come up with a new bill in one’s name or even register for a lot of activities.

“Companies that store personal data for customers have a responsibility of keeping it and protecting it ensuring that it is safe, and this fails anthem as an insurance company”(25). A response from one of the firm’s customer during an open interview. “Being that no financial information was taken from the systems does not make it any good since all data has a value, and no data is ok to get lost”(30).

Measures Taken By Anthem to Protect Its Systems

Since the attack, anthem has been trying to find measures to prevent further attacks into their systems. System protection is not just a simple thing to manage. It is considered as a cat and mouth game where no matter how many cats you deploy to watch for the mouse, the mouse will continue to advance its tactics to turn the house upside down. Such a case also happens to the information system. No matter how secure the systems are, hackers will always find ways of infiltrating them and getting information, so the major thing here is to check the system continuously and enhance it regularly.

This situation would require monitoring all the activities in the entire network at one particular time including who, when and where the data is being moved or altered. In addition to the technological tools that enable Anthem to see whoever is in the network and exactly what they are doing. It has offered education to all its system users and not just the ones in the information system unit. This knowledge will enable the employees to monitor the systems and also identify any breach as quick as possible.


Anthem has come up with a system where some of the most important information is encrypted therefore giving exclusive access to the data to only specific users of the system. It is a common problem for most hospitals (Hodge, Samuel 2014). When dealing with patient’s data, it should always be encrypted in areas that are vulnerable to breach. Another measure would be to store the data in an outside system where there is no appropriate protection rather than employing more sophisticated systems that are vulnerable: by print.

Medical Records. Comprehensive training to employees is also a measure that Anthem has taken to keep their customer’s data safe. The biggest threat to any health insurance company would be the same workers in the enterprise. Many researchers have shown that numerous businesses do not expect the actions of their very own employees to ease the work of hackers. Alongside that, employees are also reminded to double check email requests e.g. requests to confirm email passwords just to be sure the emails are from legitimate sources.

All the antivirus programs on the network devices and computers are regularly updated in Anthems systems making it easier to inspect, detect and to do away with any malicious element designed to manipulate the systems network.











Works Cited

Anthem, Inc. New York, NY: Datamonitor, 2000. Internet resource.

Journal of Data Management. Mount Morris, Ill, 1963. Print.

Orr, Tamra. Privacy and Hacking. New York: Rosen Central, 2008. Print.

Medical Records. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Institute of Legal Education, 2001. Print.

Hodge, Samuel D. Mastering Medical Records. , 2014. Print.








  1. What are the “Big Five” personality factors? How do they affect your leadership abilities and capabilities? Which factor(s) was most strongly associated with leadership? Discuss which of these personality traits you feel you possess and give a personal example of how they benefited you in a leadership context.


Big 5 personality factors.

  • Neutralism
  • Extraversion
  • Openness
  • Agreeable
  • Conscientiousness

Extraversion is the factor most commonly associated with leadership. Myself, as a former leader of a scout’s team in my school, I possessed the trait of consciousness. This position allowed me to be vigilant on the processes to follow and make accurate decisions within a  short duration of time according to the demands of the scouts.

  1. Define/describe emotional intelligence. What impact does emotional intelligence have on helping people be successful? Give a personal example of its impact on your life

Emotional intelligence is the ability to apply emotions in life’s tasks, understand, express; manage emotions within oneself and relationships and being able to use emotions to facilitate thinking. People who are more sensitive to their emissions and their impacts to others will be more successful leaders, and this will help them in situations where they are required to support others.


When it comes to me, emotional intelligence had helped me solve people’s problems as well as solving my problems. For instance, when a team member lost a parent in a road accident, I felt sorry for the partner. I mobilized the whole scout’s team to assist as much as possible in the consolation of the Scout member.



  1. Rate yourself on the Skills Inventory. (Page 69 -70) What are your leadership competencies? Do your scores suggest that one or two of the skills are stronger?  Do you agree with the assessment?  Why or Why Not?

Skill- model perspective.


Creative ability to solve new/unusual, ill-defined organizational problems

Capacity to understand people   and social systems

The accumulation of information & the mental structures to organize the information

Yes it is true because I have applied my skills to solve unusual situations as well as understanding social systems in a group

  1. How does the skills approach of leaders and managers differ?  Explain.

Management skills differ from leadership skills. For instance managers who are reactive, prefer to involve others to solve a problem and have little emotional involvement. Leaders who are emotionally active, shape ideas over responding to them and change the way people think about a situation. Leaders are more involving to solving issues than managers.






  1. Are social judgments skills the same as emotional intelligence?  Explain your answer.

Social judgment skills are different from emotional skills. They are applied more when dealing with external situations and how to judge a condition without the involvement of the leader’s emotions. Emotional intelligence is the way a leader understands his emissions in order to be able to help the subordinate’s emissions.


  1. Who is the best leader you know? The worst?  To what extent does the style approach account for the differences between the leaders?

The best leader I know of is my student’s council leader, and the worst leader is my class discussion group leader. While the students’ council leader exercised a high leader-member exchange type of leadership, the study group leader is more self-centered.

Skill model perspective.


  1. What is Situational Leadership?  Explain fully.

Situational leadership is a type of leadership where one is designated with the duties of a leader, or one is chosen to be a leader put of a situation that needed immediate leadership.


  1. Define leadership style. Identify, explain, and give examples of directive and supportive behaviors 

Leadership style can be said to be the way in which a leader relates to their subordinates. It focuses mainly on how the leaders act in problem situations. A good example is paternalism or opportunism.


  1. What is the Contingency Theory?  Explain fully.

Contingency theory is a theory developed by Fielder and Cemers in 1974 that attempts to link particular leaders to specific situations. It states that a leader’s productivity depends on how well a leaders solutions and judgments fit the problem based on existing generalizations.


  1. How did Fielder develop the Contingency Theory?  How do styles and situations impact leadership? 

Fielder developed the contingency theory by looking at situation variables and the effectiveness of leaders with variations in the variable to create a judgment that different leadership styles will be more effective with different condition variables.


  1. What is the path-goal theory designed to explain?

The path-goal theory was developed to enable us to understand how leaders encourage people working under them to achieve designated goals. It emphasizes on the link between a leaders approach, the working settings, and the behavior of junior colleagues.


  1. Should a leader develop his or her style to each subordinate, or to the work group as a whole?  Why?

A leader should not develop specific styles for each subordinate but rather use the same style in the same organization as that would lead to some division in the organization.


  1. Distinguish between transformational leadership and charismatic leadership.

Transformational leadership is a process that transforms individuals and comprises an exceptional custom of influence that changes followers to undertake more than what is expected. It is more concerned with emotional behavior, customs, work requirements, standards and the long-term goal.

Charismatic Leadership, is a leadership style where leaders have a unique way that has a distinct effect on his or her subordinates. It transforms the follower’s perceptions and links indent of followers to reflect the face of the organization and throughout the leadership process. Leaders express high expectations to followers and help the followers gain self-fulfillment and meet their goals.


  1. Explain the concept of transformational leadership.  How did Burns interpret the concept?  Distinguish between transformational and transactional leadership.

Transformational leadership in a whole is a situation in which an individual gradually transforms into a leader through exposure to exceptional forms of influences. In the entire process, the followers and leaders become bound together through that transformation.


Burns interpreted the concept is to be Procedure of interacting with other people to form an association that raises ethics and motivation in a follower and the leader.

Transactional leadership mainly majors on interaction of leaders and subordinates and the interaction is clearly evident in various aspects of life. In transformational leadership, the leader is attentive to the needs and motives of followers and tries to help followers attain their set goals.

















Northouse, Peter G. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage, 2004. Print.


Instruction on How to Write an Incident Report





Instruction on How to Write an Incident Report

Steps involved includes:

Regular language

For a good incident report, the language should be easy to understand and straight to the point. An incident report is a file that is read by many people e.g. supervisors. Writing it in a complicated language will result in an inadequate understanding of the report. So it is very advisable that the language used in an incident report should be a simple English with no complicated words or phrases. It should be straight to the point and brief with the main points outlined correctly.

The 5W’S

The easiest way to outline the most significant details is through the 5W’s:

WHO: this involves the details of the people involved in that incident. It includes the people that were most involved in the incident and their contact information. Other important details of those people, their physical characteristics, how they look, dress, sound or behave is also useful.

WHAT: this involves the events and actions that took place in the incident. How did it happen? What was done? Here a lot of details is given to how the event took place from the beginning to the end. Every detailed information should be fully outlined.

WHEN: this involves the time, date, day and year. At what time and day did the event take place? In some incidences, it is very critical to indicate the weather condition, the lighting and also other conditions that are deemed important.

WHERE: this involves the location that the event happened. Here a lot of information is also needed, for example, the address, the nearby objects, the buildings around, the geographical landscape, etc. It should be as accurate as possible.

WHY: this part is not as important as other parts since you may never know why the incident took place. It is good to write, for example, you heard someone say something about the event and you don’t need to guess what might be the cause of that incident. The main task is just to stick to the facts and not unclear opinions.

Only facts

As the above paragraph emphasizes, it is very crucial only to stick to facts and not merely opinions. This is because, when one uses only opinions from others or what you only thought took place, the report will become weak because you don’t capture the facts. Thus, it is crucial only to write what you saw, heard or captured.

Take video or photos

When one goes to a particular scene of an incident, it is paramount to carry with you a camera or a video recorder or even a phone because it has both the camera and the video recorder. Record the incident because this will be essential for the report. It provides additional information that is objective. The videos and the photos will clearly indicate the level or the depth of the incident and how it took place.

Be professional

A report is a document read by many people, so professionalism is highly encouraged. In the report, no judgment should be made on any individual or incident. Use of rude, provocative or slang words is not allowed. After the identification of the individuals in the report, it is imperative that the next time you mention them, refer to them as Mr. or Ms.


It is important that when someone is writing a report to use orderly paragraphs in order to make the report look neat. The use of paragraphs gives the reader an ample time reading the report. They can grasp the facts as presented in new paragraphs. The use of bullets is also encouraged because it gives the reader the urge to continue reading and understand the critical points.



Resene Paints





Resene Paints

  1. Yes. Resene should look forward to expanding overseas.

Resene should expand overseas to more countries since they already have their international chains of distribution, and licensing of their products has already been done in the involved countries. Although it may seem a risky venture for the company, it is worth taking. A lot of the research by the company’s marketers show that there are many potential markets some even being twice or thrice the size of the company’s current market. In fact, Australia has been depicted to be five times the size of paint market available in New Zealand. This situation is an excellent indication and also a motivation for the company to venture and expand its services internationally.

Little growth has been experienced in the architectural and paint industry in Australia and New Zealand. Other markets are showing progressively high rates of growth which should motivate the company to cross more borders in search of these growing markets. This step will help Resene to grow itself.


Competition is also another factor that the company should consider because it controls only 23% of the Paint industry in New Zealand with its closest competitor controlling 22%. This situation sounds a warning alert for Resene so, in order to gain more popularity and revenue, it should expand overseas.

  1. Yes, Resene should seek to venture into industries outside its own.

It is evident that Resene suppliers are aware that Resene is a more innovative company than its competitors. The suppliers also inform Resene of the new trends in building materials that are currently being used. This information enables Resene to produce products to meet the market needs.


  1. Strengths

Throughout its 55 years of existence, the company has managed to come from the bottom to the first place in the paint industry in New Zealand. This growth makes it a recognized paint company due to the strengths and popularity of the many brands of paint it produces. Resene also produces high-quality construction products.



As the leading among the paint companies in New Zealand, Resene is the only company that is still incurring research and massive advertisement costs since it comes last in ranking and as a business. It has to spend those extra dimes to keep up with the competition.


Resene was formerly a family business owned by the Nightingale family. This position limits the company’s ability to acquire some resources. The business’s expansion is limited in New Zealand, but more hope is building up on the transformational stage.


Reflective Writing





Reflective Writing





Student’s Name














As a business student, I have learnt so much about the world of business. Among these disciplines that have been of much interest to me are, the market trends, economic policies, business analysis and emerging issues of the business world. I have gained knowledge in business analysis, and this knowledge has assisted me on a personal account as a business student. From the topic of business analysis, there is this chapter that is of interest to my course.  I would like to talk about my personal understanding of the chapter that talks about strategy as one of the aspects of business analysis.

According to Johnson Scholes &Whittington (2008), “Strategy is the direction and scope of an organisation over long term, which achieves advantage in a changing environment through its configuration resources competencies with aim of fulfilling stakeholder’s expectations.” This definition describes strategy as a plan that is measurable and is set to be achieved. It is a long-term process and, therefore, the concept of time is included. Resources are also a major part in the achievement of the strategy. This is because resources, be it capital or human, is needed for such achievement to be gainful.

I also learnt that strategy development could be influenced by the decision made by the hierarchy in the business structure. Strategy could be formulated as a result of the decision of the business owner. In other cases, it could be the observation of the managers or it could emerge even from the workers themselves. According to my understanding, the primary objective of a strategy is to achieve a positive result, in the long run. Therefore, there is a need for the plan to be written down so as to be referred to by the workers. It will enable them to find ways to contribute to its achievement.


I also learnt that, prior to developing a strategy, it is always important to have a scrutiny of both the external and internal environments. This process helps a business to formulate a realistic plan that is going to be achievable. In analysing the external factors, there are tools used to make this possible. The tools include PESTEL, Five Force Model and SWOT. The internal factors are also important just as much as the external factors. In my understanding, this situation will cause the management to look at the performance of the business in relation to the future expectations. This position will also bring the need for knowledge management to avoid lack of innovation.

This chapter also talks about strategy execution which is a risky occurrence in that it involves significant changes from the norm. These changes are both from the inside and outside of the business. There are levels of change also that I learnt, the incremental change, the bumpy progressive change and also the discontinuous change. All in all, this chapter has helped me understand the business environment and how it is important to set a strategy in business for it to be successful.