Response to “Cheating in a bottom-line Economy” by David Callahan

Student’s Name:

Tutor’s Name:

Course Title:


Response to “Cheating in a bottom-line Economy” by David Callahan

In his article, David Callahan contemplates on some of the key reasons behind ethical decay in the American economy associated with the need to meet particular standards. Callahan concludes that people are far more likely to choose financial stability at the expense of their integrity. He deduced that this was the case across all businesses regardless of them being blue-collar or white-collar. Today in America, the economic life is filled with businesses seeking to achieve the American dream at the expense of their ethics. Callahan pairs cheating in the white-collar and the blue-collar world as a way of showing that cheating extends beyond people’s economic backgrounds.

The article provides a history of cheating in the economy, highlighting the increased competitiveness in the market. The author also points out how economic fluctuations influence businesses to implement measures to ensure that they had a competitive advantage. For example, Sears was a dominant retail company in the 1970s which influentially shaped the American culture. However, as years went on, consumer needs changed and the market became more competitive leading to a decline in the company’s revenues. Eventually, Sears implemented an alternative compensation system and had to let go of 48,000 employees. Consequently, they had to apply tactics where they basically conned their customers to stay afloat.

Callahan uses simple language in his article to make it easier for the audience to understand his viewpoint. However, he does not deviate from establishing the economic significance of this article. As a result, it is easier for him to reach out to an audience with an economic background and the general public. He also digresses from sharing facts by providing real-life examples of cheating in the American economy. Furthermore, he steers away from passing judgment on companies but encourages the audience to share the blame. In so doing, he appeals to the audience’s sense of responsibility and highlights a problem that requires being addressed in the market. Callahan also cites information from credible sources to support his argument.

From a personal perspective, Callahan’s viewpoint on what is happening in the country’s economic status. More people are dedicated towards achieving the American dream to the point that they disregard their integrity.  Inasmuch as this could be considered to be a moral issue, the current times make it difficult for people to actually take their integrity seriously. People prefer to make more money and gain material wealth regardless of their economic and social status. It could be argued that the moral values are changing along with the times and as such, it is more acceptable for businesses to “cheat” in order for them to get ahead. While his research pointed to an important aspect of the American economy, it would be important to expand it further to highlight how the human psychology relates to this ideology. In so doing, the research would provide a clearer comprehension of a person’s thought process when defying their integrity.



Globalization Effect on Muslim Modernity

Student’s Name:

Tutor’s Name:

Course Title:


Globalization Effect on Muslim Modernity

Historical Significance

The use of historical importance can be relevant to the term modernity as well as the surroundings of various social-cultural practices, customs, attitudes, and ideologies that have grown in reputation within the Islam faith. The preferences based on historical events have also contributed to the modernization experience with the effects placed on various societies and cultures. The continuous influences surpasses multiple approaches that are used to signify embrace and own appreciation of religious teachings, where Islam is part of the equation. The distinction takes the form of applicability and resultant changes that it has to the Muslim faithful at any given time. It does not forget the institutions as well as respected politics that have made the faith grow in importance over the years. Modernization works hand in hand with the globalization as it transforms the overview of various aspects of life and it does not limit the scope of coverage to the same extent be it nationalism and cultural influences. Muslims appear resistant to any form of modernism, advancement, and the general embrace of globalization due to the strict adherence to the teachings and indifference it has to impact of westernization.

The current representation of globalization takes into consideration the logical development of ideas that help shape the Islamic world with its uniqueness as compared to other religions. However, the quality associated with European modernity and times has risen to reputation that can affect any religion especially Islam. In the historical basis, Europe was responsible for spreading modernization at the expense of Islamic teachings. It did not have the basic impact on the communities nearby, as well as connections at both social and prepared principles. It was even made worse as the westernized world was exercising academic and social authority (Ayub 478). The Islamic world, therefore, existing in an active motiveless state had to face the consequences of colonial action and in turn, generate interaction on the religious basis. Globalization was then responsible for expanding a rule that showed a change in the approach and view of life. It was in charge of the cultural and identical normative shifts through a calculated process that had the whole world in tow.

European Influence in Globalization

As means of responding to European imperialism, the action of Islamic globalization was developed during the 19th century. Progress had the intention to accommodate confidence growing among the Muslims especially with current patterns and values that could affect their existence. The beliefs of globalization thrived under the significant drives of science and technology throughout the nineteenth century and onwards. Communication, governance, and administration deliveries were the pioneers in ensuring that globalization was realized at an unprecedented rate. It was intended to portray current teachings and subjects through its approaches to Muslims and their faith. Hassan (123) argues that great emphasis was placed on the communication conveyed concerning Islamic thoughts, social welfare, organization control, and motivations of social life as per Islamic teachings and relevance. The corrective measures were meant to reduce the influence of modernity on Muslims.

Globalization is in full effect when the political, economic, and social motives are enforced and accepted especially within the developed nations from the west, unlike the developing countries. Soon enough, it has been accepted on a global scale and as therefore advantaged several social orders particularly ones that have resounded with Muslims in an unsuspecting manner. It has included components of a vibrant and attributive sequence of social orders and affected the preferences of Muslim teachings especially on Allah’s ways of managing his creation. Islamic ideas and values have been given due respect as they instill consistent measures that help approach respect and dignity of all humans. They have restrictions on secular indulgence as it is the norm with religions (Moten 4). The sentiments of globalization have been permeated through issues of being existing and current from one part of the world to another affecting all religions, races, backgrounds, ethnicities, and classes. The reactions from Muslim to the same effect have been divergent as necessity overrides the faith when it matters.

Impact of Modernity to Muslims

Within the Islamic world, the people and their faith have shown characteristics of suffering from the purposeful impact of modernization. Globalization takes advantage of having a personal tone to the different nations without having consulted input from varied opinions. Different adjustments are made to globalization shifts to make it appealing and supreme than any other influence that can have positive impacts on the different societies. It is thus selfish, and self-exonerating is making it not a preserve of Muslims. All people and communities have based much of the globalization importance on thoughts, deliberations, values, confidences, measures, and fondness towards a lifestyle that is accepted (Morgan 6). Its importance cannot be understated as it has transformed the manner in which, life and people think and carry out their tasks as opposed to the old approaches. Vibrant intercession and awareness are needed to accompany modernization as a form of practiced human expansion, giving forth opportunity and the probability without any limits.

The main problem associated with modernity and its effect on Islam has been coordinating most and measurable unavailable sections of general advancement due to westernized influences. It ponders integrated Islamic culture without having a necessity of beginning other qualities lessons and standards of the teachings portrayed through the faith. There is a divide between providing means of advancement to all humans on an equal platform and the resolute Islamic censure. It is composed of ideologies and teachings that are not compounded on Islamic teachings. It is taken as a misguidance and results are plainly apparent, striking what is not in agreement or fragile harmony between practical answers and respect or once religion. In most cases, it has facilitated a means of entirely joining or grasping globalization without the mechanism of refining and understanding Islam primarily on the financial, social, political, economic, and cultural order within the faith (Abbas 341). It affects the Islam legacy and customs while taking over the privilege and attainable preference that the faithful has. Modernity has been an enemy of the permeated beliefs within the religion for the good of the Muslims.

Embracing Modernity

Muslims do not need to have any undue hate for the convention of Islamic teachings mainly based on the differences it has with modernity and the impact of globalization today. It has never been any reason for numbness or darkness within its historical relevance. The profited advancement of decency can be credited to the realization of Muslim teachings and development of the relationship that it creates between human beings without any form of segregation or bias. The esteem framework fitted with the precision of philosophical establishments has to take into consideration the Islamic perspective at current science to generate a better understanding of modernity. The construct through definition accounts for various faculties and credible information that can be addressed using universal perception and language. Establishments can also use specific logic in making known that modernity tries merely to make life easier and solve human problems on a global scale.



Works Cited

Abbas, Mohd. “Globalization and the Muslim World.” Journal of Islam in Asia, vol. 96, no. 3, Sept. 2011, pp. 341-262.

Ayub, Sheikh J. “Globalization and Islam: Challenges and Opportunities.” Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, vol. 2, no. 8, 2016, pp. 478- 484.

Hassan, Muhammad D. “Islam, Globalization, and Freedom of Expression”. Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective, vol. 3, no. 2, 2008, pp. 123- 133.

Morgan, John H. “Islam and Assimilation in the West: Religious and Cultural Ingredients in American Muslim Experience.” Journal of Religion and Society, vol. 16, 2014, pp. 1-11.

Moten, Abdul R. “Modernity, tradition and modernity in tradition in Muslim societies”. Intellectual Discourse, vol. 19, no. 1, 2011, pp. 1- 13.


Islam and Modernity: The Rights of Muslim Women in the Modern World

Student’s Name:

Tutor’s Name:

Course Title:


Islam and Modernity: The Rights of Muslim Women in the Modern World

The advancement of religion and its connection to the rest of the society remains a major topic of exploration in the sociological theory. Throughout history, Islam has been viewed and interpreted from a male perspective, despite the fact that the first convert into the new religion was a woman; Khadijah, Prophet Muhamad’s wife. Over the course of history, numerous women have continued to play a fundamental role in the transmission of hadith as well as the establishment of Sufism. Unfortunately, they have largely been marginalized in the Islam religion, whose laws and scriptures are mainly interpreted from a male endeavour and are denied leadership roles both in the society and their places of worship. In the recent times, however, the role of Islamic women in the society have changed dramatically. Despite the rise of women empowerment and the call for equality in the Islamic world, the right of Muslim women in the contemporary world is still limited compared to other parts of the developed world.

Early marriage for girls is a prevalent issue in the Islamic world. Unlike the men who are allowed to have up to four wives, Muslim women are only allowed to have one spouse. In Islamic countries, family law is founded on the scriptures written in the Quran. A’isha, who was Prophet Muhammad’s favorite wife, was only six years old when the wed, and nine when they consummated their marriage. Similar cases are common throughout the Islamic countries in which the legal age for girls to marry is very young. For instance, in Iran, it is legal for a girl as young as nine and a boy of 14 years to get married (Segal-Engelchin & Massry 726). As a result, it is common to find old people taking advantage of such laws to marry young girls, only to abandon them and marry others. Even though countries such as Yemen have implemented laws that forbid the marriage of girls under the age of 15, such laws are often ignored. In most cases, the onset of puberty is regarded as the most opportune time during which a marriage can be consummated.

Muslim women still find it extremely to file for divorce even in the contemporary world today. As stated by Fortier, women in the Islamic societies find it quite difficult to sue for divorce, yet the men can easily be released from their vows on demand (160). In fact, a man can be divorced from his wife by simply saying the phrase ‘I divorce you’ three consecutive times. In some countries, such as Pakistan, the law is reluctant enough to allow for alimony, which lasts for three months to certify that the woman is not pregnant before the marriage is officially dissolved. Furthermore, most of the women choose to remain in unfulfilling marriages out of the fear of poverty and the possibility of being separated from their children (Fortier 161). In Islam, the father automatically gets custody over any male child that is beyond the age of six and girls once they hit puberty. Thus, given the difficulties they face while seeking to terminate their marriages, most women choose to remain in abusive and bad unions.

Muslim women are expected to always obey their husband, and any act of disobedience is punishable by beating. Sura 4:34 of the Qur’an states that husbands have pre-eminence over their wives. It further states that in the case of an insubordinate wife, the husband should scold her, leave her to sleep alone, and eventually beat her (Ammar 517). While this might not explain the reasons behind the rampant cases of wife battery in Islamic societies, it could give reasons why the female victims of domestic violence in such countries consider the violent acts of their husbands as acceptable and do not seek for external interventions. Besides domestic violence, Muslim women are also prone to incidences of ‘honor killings’. According to Chesler, these killings occur in instances where a select number of Muslim women are murdered by their husbands and relatives once they are suspected of disobedience, sexual discretion, or getting married against the wishes of their family (3). In most cases, the killers are almost never punished as those who kill their wives after they catch them in an act of adultery are exempted from punishment. As a result, Muslim women in such countries are exposed to numerous forms of extreme violence while the male perpetrators are not held liable for their actions.

On the other hand, Muslim women have gained increased roles in the society in the recent times. To begin with, literacy and education of the girl-child has facilitated the inclusion of Muslim women in the interpretation of the Quran. Since the early 20th century, millions of girl in Islamic countries are taught the Sunnah and the Qur’an, and are allowed to attain primary and secondary education. At the same time, the mosques created space for women to allow them to take part in public prayer services. In Egypt, Zaynab al-Ghazali founded the Muslim Ladies’ Association in 1938 with the aim of carrying out social welfare activities (DeLong-Bas). Over time, the association grew and started training women to execute religious exhortation, or da’wah, and to pass the Islamic religious principles to other women. Through such efforts, more and more women were able to gain fundamental understanding on the exegesis on religious hadith and Qur’an. Furthermore, the knowledge that they gained from such activities meant that they were equally capable to recite, teach, and interpret the Qur’an as the men in their societies.

While the concept of female empowerment and gender equality has been embraced throughout the Western world, Muslim women have limited rights even in the modern world today. Early marriage for girls remains an issue of concern in the Islamic world where girls under the age of ten and boys as young as 15 are legally allowed to marry. At the same time, sharia laws make it excessively difficult for women to dissolve their marriages, hence, forcing hundreds of women to remain in bad marriages out of the fear that they would lose their children or live the rest of their lives in abject poverty. Furthermore, the fact that the Qur’an allows men to beat their insubordinate wives has resulted in domestic violence being accepted as a norm in the Islamic world. Such laws are unfavorable to the women since they give more power to the men to marry as many times as they want and use harsh modes of punishment in dealing with their disobedient wives. However, education seems to be playing an instrumental part in the society by allowing women to be involved in recounting, teaching, and read between of the lines the Qur’an in the present-day Islamic society.



















Works Cited

Ammar, Nawal H. “Wife battery in Islam: A comprehensive understanding of interpretations.” Violence against women, vol. 13, no. 5, 2007, pp. 516-526. Accessed 26 January 2018

Chesler, Phyllis. “Worldwide trends in honor killings.” Middle East Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 2, 2010, pp. 3-11, Accessed 26 January 2018

DeLong-Bas, Natana J. Women, Islam, and the Twenty-First Century. 2018, Accessed 26 January 2018

Fortier, Corinne. Chapter 6: The Right to Divorce for Women (khul’) in Islam: Comparative Practices in Mauritania and Egypt. 2012, Accessed 26 January 2018

Segal-Engelchin, Dorit, Efrat Huss, and Najlaa Massry. “The Experience of Early Marriage: Perspectives of Engaged and Married Muslim Women in Israel.” Journal of Adolescent Research, vol. 31, no. 6, 2016, pp. 725-749. Accessed 26 January 2018





Vulnerable Population Assessment

Vulnerable Population Assessment


Institutional Affiliation:


Vulnerable Population Assessment

I live in Summerlin, Nevada. It is a community based in Las Vegas with beautiful residential homes apart from the main attraction of the Red Rock Canyon. Within the village, every resident possesses a trail where one can decide to take a walk, hike, and manage to keep a healthy and active lifestyle. Apart from the trail, the community has a common pool, soccer and baseball pitches, basketball and tennis courts, as well as golf utilities that are open for all. The target members of the community for the study are the mentally challenged as well as disabled persons in the area who are far from the health norm. They have to seek help from an external basis and this puts them at various health risks. With a comprehensive evaluation basis of the vulnerable members of the community, it is easier to facilitate mitigation steps to help them and make them part of the larger Summerlin.

Vulnerable Population Overview

Majority of the people within my community can be stated as healthy, especially taking into consideration the variety and extent of biophysical differences among them and the lifestyle choices. Most of the times, the community is active through utilization of the trail, exercising and walking. The community is mainly composed of family setups and the age bracket can be between one and sixty-five. Despite the appearance of a bristling healthy community, a select population representation is on the periphery of healthy living. It is not easily identifiable to see the mentally challenged persons, while the disabled are not far off either. Influences of drugs and alcohol are not on the upper limit, though the existence cannot be understated. An in-depth look at this vulnerable population provides for a better understanding of the situation on the ground, with an aim of achieving first-hand information.

The common trend of this vulnerable group in Summerlin can be identified through indicators such as their residential settings and economical condition. Majority can be homeless and unemployed especially based at the major intersection of the streets. They are also detached from other members, in that their model houses are not at par as the others. Since most of the houses are in good shape, and added condominiums as well as apartments are on the rise, it is easy to establish this population through the marked difference in the process. Transportation is also characteristic as the vulnerable population does not own cars, and in most cases do not use the public transportation available. Their routines are isolated as they do not utilize the public spaces and recreational facilities as the rest.

Strengths, Risk Factors, and/or Barriers

Using the wellness orientation in determining various factors that characterize the vulnerable population provides a solid foundation of their involvement. One of the main barriers that can be distinguished to the health promotion is that of feeling stressed or sad. It is a state that can make the population have a limited outlook on ways to improve their physical, social, psychological, and biological abilities to exercise and live a healthy life just like the others. In addition, there seems to be limited support towards them in ways of encouraging their social status and improving them in equal measure (Shor & Shalev, 2014). On the other hand, the same barrier has catapulted the isolation of the group from the others as their establishments are not in line with daily activities, routines, and trends expected. It also adds up to the conundrum that has not been realized fully of the vulnerable population.

One of the main risk factors that accompany the vulnerable population in this regard is the social fabric of the community. As the majority of the population carries out their participation and utility of the public recreational facilities, a growing trend of detachment can be identified within the community (Patel, 2014). The mentally challenged persons stand as the most vulnerable as they provide a difficult position for their support and social inclusion to the larger groups. On the other hand, the disabled are able to improve their participation just as the elderly who need nursing care and attention all the time. In return, the community in Summerlin is at an advance and premise of ensuring that a healthy population is achieved while providing help needed as need arises.

Community Resources

Summerlin Hospital is the primary health care facility in the community. It focuses on the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), pediatric, labor, and delivery operations. The hospital is located at 657 N. Town Center drive. It is open and accommodative to all people in the community, while the service delivery is earmarked as timely. Judging the requirements needed for the vulnerable group in the community, the resources are not adequate. Apart from the hospital, several clinics in the area do not provide the much-needed services to address mental challenges, disabilities, and efficient care that can be given to the elderly persons. The gaps in this setting make it harder for the vulnerable population to obtain care and attention as required, thereby forcing those to seek help elsewhere (Tsemberis, & Macnaughton, 2017). It becomes costly and time-consuming when having to look for external facilities to address issues that can be solved within the same locality. It increases the deterioration of health status of the people.

Community Health Problem Diagnosis

The main priority for the community health problem that the susceptible group is attention and care to existing challenges that they face. Experiencing lack of adequate medication, treatment, and checkup for the mental issues, disability concerns, and effective shelters for the elderly can be of uttermost importance to the group at any given time (Canady, 20150. A community health nurse can have a positive impact on the susceptible group through instituting basic facility that can offer services that addresses these challenges. Looking at the Healthy People 2020 indications, the mental health, and disorders target is of 1.7. Within Nevada alone, the populations as per 2009 were 3.6, 2013 was 3.8, and 2015 stood at 2.8 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2018). The objective when addressing this concern is to ensure that the population is reduced to 1.7 to enable better mitigation and management programs for the communities.


The vulnerable population in Summerlin, Nevada is mostly the mentally challenged persons as well as the disabled, and elderly who need nursing care and attention. The main indication that enhances the susceptibility of these people is both economical and social, especially with their inability to participate in an active lifestyle like majority of the population in the community. The result is that there is a growing isolation and detachment of the vulnerable population from the other members of the community, and it threatens to weaken the social fabric of the area. Priority should be given in establishing a health facility that addresses the issues stated as well as programs that can improve the inclusivity of all members of the community, despite their challenges.



Canady, V. A. (2015). Funding model to help SMI patients receive intensive community treatment. Mental Health Weekly, 25(41), 1-8. doi:10.1002/mhw.30378

Patel, V. (2014). Rethinking mental health care. Intervention, 12(3), 15-20. doi:10.1097/wtf.0000000000000065

Shor, R., & Shalev, A. (2014). Barriers to involvement in physical activities of persons with mental illness: Table 1: Health Promotion International, 31(1), 116- 125. doi:10.1093/heapro/dau078

Tsemberis, S., & Macnaughton, E. (2017). Homelessness and Challenges of Community Care. Mental Health and Illness in the City, 11(3), 1-26. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-0752-1_6-1

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2018). Healthy People 2020: Topics and objectives. Retrieved from


U.S Health

U.S Health

Student Name:

Institutional Affiliation:


U.S Health

Topic 3

The United States ranks as 37th out of respective 191 nations in the world when it comes to life expectancy on average. Schroeder has challenged the country to become the leading provider in health care around the world (George, 2016). For the US to achieve this, several issues must be addressed before the actualization of required decisions on both administrative and operational levels. The country has several negative factors that have made universal health care to the citizens an almost impossible realization. There is uneven access to adequate medical care and management, despite the large budgetary allocations that the country has when compared to all other nations, even in the developed nations that have the same stature. In addition, the costs associated with the service delivery and charges for functionality are quite expensive for the common person as well as inequality that affect the overall system.

The US has to phase off its dual nature on health care matter for it to improve on its positioning. The health care system in the country is hugely expensive and in most cases is driven by the advancement of technology. According to George (2016), the country has to distinguish all parameters that are available for improving service delivery and changing the health status of the people. For example, preventive health care should be prioritized before the over-reliance of emergency treatment. Thus, the federal government should spearhead all possible prevention techniques to all people as a matter of urgency and convenience as opposed to communication on relayed care once they fall sick or affected by illnesses. It also calls on the channeling of the health care budget to cater for universal insurance to all people especially those at the lower end of financial abilities.

The country needs to include zero tolerance to medical errors and occurrence of overtreatment and over-diagnosis at any given time. Policies should be made and enforced to strengthen the above parameters thereby changing the health care approach by all stakeholders including the patients and healthy individuals. Behavioral and mental health indicators are supposed to be take priority in all planning to ensure that people are aware of the dangers that lie in poor lifestyle choices. Addressing the issue of inequality and inaccessibility to affordable health care services should be made a national decree without compromise. Integrating the social, economic, political, and environmental factors is also necessary to help the country realize its need for efficient health care systems.


The concerns of health care in any given setting are complex and therefore do not have a straight and singlehanded solutions to all problems that arise. Health care is fundamental to the quality of life for every human being. There should be no compromise on the factors that can be implemented to make sure it is: accessible, available, affordable, and effective to all. Stakeholders, including the common person, have to reach at a compromise on the way forward when dealing with the issue of health care as it affects average mortality to the entire population. The developmental context of all children from birth should be given significance as it leads to adolescence and adult life therefore affecting mortality. Contextual changes should be made to ensure that all people have clean air, water, nutrition, and the environment they live in is conducive for proper existence. On the personal level, we are all responsible for making the proper health choices through our lifestyles.




George, M. (2016). Being Fair in Universal Health Coverage: Prioritize Public Health Services for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. American Journal of Public Health, 106(5), 830-831. doi:10.2105/ajph.2016.303145


The Vanishing Middle Class





The Vanishing Middle Class


The Vanishing Middle Class by Elizabeth Warren focuses on the plight of the middle class in the United States especially with regards to earning their revenue and maintaining their standards of living. She avoids providing a specific definition of what she considers to be middle class as she considers that there might not be a constructive definition. Instead, she points out that the values expressed by the middle class are a cumulation of all mainstream American principles. They are the reflections of part of a larger population affected by the financial status of the country, which contributes to their spending and their susceptibility to falling into debt.

Warren explains that inasmuch as there has been a significant income increase for middle class families, there has also been a rise in their expenditures. She refers to this situation as overconsumption. She explains that overconsumption has had a negative impact on median-earning families as they fail to save and end up in a lot of debt. People in this social class spend a larger part of their income on superfluous material in addition to their basic needs. In comparison to the previous generation, it was easier for people to save more money as they did not varying luxuries including the internet or cable.

Warren comes to the defense of the current middle class arguing that their spending is brought about by an increase in their basic needs. For examples, many middle-income families depend on income from both parents, which makes it difficult to cater for other household requirements. Therefore, they pay for external help from people who would help to keep everything in order. Consequently, they end up with less money than it would be expected for people in their social class.

Use of Rhetorical Devices

Warren’s choice of words in writing this article makes it an easier and more interesting read. Her target audience was the general public, and she intended to pass her message across regarding the plight of the middle class in the United States during the current times. Her statements are also concise thereby allowing the reader to effectively relate to the message being relayed. She also uses some strong words to put emphasis on her message, which is a way of her to relate to her audience. Her choice of words also allows for the development of a constant flow as one reads through the article, thereby allowing the reader to have a clear understanding of the problems facing the middle class.

Furthermore, she uses a rhetorical question to introduce her article in an attempt to indulge the audience in her thought process. By posing the question, the reader attaches themselves to the article and they actively participate in finding a suitable answer with the author. She uses this device to persuade her readers to see and agree with her point of view.

There is also the use of “cause and effect” in her writing, which provides flow into her article and enables the reader to have a clear picture of the problem at hand. she begins by pointing out the rise of the middle class in the society and the factors that contributed to this rise. She then goes on to discuss the causes that lead to them spending their income on some expenses that might be considered irrelevant. She finally highlights how this has an impact on the American economy and in return, it gets back to negatively affect the middle class. The audience follows this trail of thought accordingly, which leads to better comprehension of the article.

The author also uses graphics which help to break the monotony of words in her article. Warren applies the use of charts and graphs that allow her to convey her message more effectively and enable the reader to have a realistic portrayal of the issue at hand. The graphs are a representation of the numerical data that she uses to support her research and it provides a clear depiction of the problems faced by the middle class. It is important to note that Warren intended for this article to be professional and as such, she steers away from using drawings. However, from personal perspective, the use of cartoons or images of people would have helped to pass the message across to the larger population.

Personal Experience

In agreement with the article, I believe that the middle class is faced with several economic challenges in the current society. These challenges mostly relate to the element of consumerism, which has been dominant in the American economy over the past few decades. Many companies In the United States spend large amounts of money on advertisements designed to influence the buyer towards buying a particular product and following the trend. For example, over the years, there have been rapid technological advancements which have require more people to stay updated on the current devices. People are willing to line up in stores in order to get the new iPad, despite the fact that they might not necessarily need it. The result is a large population of people buying unnecessary things that they would dispose off once a new trend comes up.

Additionally, the introduction of the credit card has enabled people to buy more goods even though they might not be able to afford them.           Consequently, a larger population of the middle class is in debt, and little can be done to change this situation. Mortgages became more popular with the middle class as they sought to buy their own homes in advance and pay for it through the course of their years. In the end, overconsumption by the middle class has gone a long way as to keep them in debt. They find more need for money that they do not have with the hopes of paying it back in the future. Ultimately, this class is going to remain indebted to the economy through their lifetime.

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design





Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design’ (CPTED) refers to a crime prevention concept that puts emphasis on strategic design and the proper use of the built environment for the purposes of decreasing both the incidences of crime and the fear of crime. The concept’s main purpose is to remove or decrease the chances or rather the existing loopholes that facilitate crime in a given environment while at the same time promoting an enhanced level of interaction of the legitimate users with the existing space. In essence, CPTED is a more concerted preventive and pro-active approach towards dealing with the issue of crime as opposed to a reactive one.

The concept serves as an important element in providing the service offered by Design for Security. Moreover, it is possible to realize the optimal benefits when applying the strategy during the early stages of the design process that is, before laying down the integral design decisions. However, it is important to note that for optimal results, it is prudent to incorporate other environmental, social, and community based strategies with CPTED as opposed to employing it as the sole crime prevention strategy. CPTED mainly comprises of four distinctive principles, which are: natural surveillance; natural access control; territorial reinforcement; and maintenance.

Achieving the principle of natural surveillance involves having design and maintenance that makes it possible for the people to go about their daily routines while having a clear view of the surrounding area, which also involves reducing concealed spaces that promote unlawful activity. The principle of natural surveillance mainly involves the use of appropriate lighting; low or see through landscaping or fencing; and getting rid of areas that provide concealment, while putting up doors, windows, and walkways that facilitate easy and enhanced observation of the surroundings.

The principle of natural access control mainly services to limit the level of control that is accorded to criminals. Research generally holds that criminal prefer areas where they have a much higher level of control. However, such levels of control are easily limited through proper design such as providing clear markings to building and property entrances and ensuring all visitors are channeled towards a designated area. Territorial reinforcement focuses on creating a distinction between private and public property. The distinction serves the purpose of providing the legitimate occupants with a sense of ownership where they get to easily notice and even question intruders in addition to making it hard for the intruders to blend in. The principle of maintenance is associated with territorial reinforcement whereby a well maintained area creates the impression that the occupants are concerned about the area and consequently discouraging criminal activities such as vandalism as the resultant change to the area is easily noticed. Target hardening is mainly concerned with making it much difficult for an intruder to force entry into the area. Some of the measures involved in target hardening involves the use of deadbolt locks made of hardened steel bolts and the use of protective window films.

In essence, through CPTED ensures that the design of any space takes into consideration the security of the users during the initial planning stages as opposed to including the relevant measures when the final designs are completed. In this way, the concepts serves as a proactive approach to security as opposed to a reactive one.


Impact of Physical Design

In design, one of the most prominent factors taken into consideration is that of function. The factor of function gave rise to the raging debate of form versus function where designers and users of certain utilities argue on whether the design is mainly supposed to focus on the form or rather the function of the utility. It therefore follows that the physical design of any utility plays a critical role on how the designed object or space is utilized. In order to conduct a more comprehensive discourse on the topic, it is prudent to narrow down to a more specific subject such as the impact physical design on say learning institutions. Accordingly, research holds that design plays a critical role in enabling the learning institutions achieve their fundamental goals and objectives and specifically as far as student outcomes are concerned.

As far as the quality of the facility is concerned, research indicates that buildings and facilities that are of higher quality are associated with a close link with enhanced student achievement together with engagement outcomes. Moreover, that aesthetic value of the facility further holds a greater significance in comparison to structural quality as far as student outcomes are concerned. In essence, students tend to be happier and feel greatly valued when the learning facilities are of greater quality (White, p.12). Taking ventilation and acoustics as an illustration, the physical design of such installations has a direct impact on student outcomes. Poorly designed facilities result in poor indoor air quality that normally causes health issues and is associated with decreased achievement levels. Moreover, the poor design of acoustics can result in misinterpretation of instruction or poor student engagement, which further results in low student outcomes. Poor acoustics have a negative impact on both the learner and the instructor and consequently having a direct impact on student achievement. Moderate and advanced physical features of flexible learning spaces tend to focus more on the configuration, type, and potential flexibility of school buildings and facilities in addition to the outdoor spaces. The physical features further include the design features of the learning spaces together with the flexibility and versatility of the spaces for the purposes of supporting different learning and teaching activities. The aesthetic value of a facility, a resultant of physical design, has a significant impact on the emotional and mental faculties of the users.

Moreover, touching on the subject of security, the physical design of an installation holds a significant impact on the level of security. The physical design not only focuses on the installation of security assets such as perimeter fences and gates but also designing the spaces in such a manner that it comprises of clear open spaces with minimal opportunities for concealment. Lighting, which is another aspect of physical design, further plays a critical role in not only enhancing the level of security within a facility but also impacts on the operational costs especially where natural lighting is maximized. Well lit spaces serve to increase the level of confidence among the legitimate users of the facility while at the same time discouraging criminal activities such as vandalism and pilferage of items. It, therefore, follows that the physical design holds great significance on the function of an asset essentially impacts on how the asset is able to accomplish its intended purpose.






Works Cited

White, Garland F. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: How Investing in Physical and Social Capital Makes Communities Safer. Lewiston, N.Y: E. Mellen Press, 2006. Print.


Student’s Name:

Tutor’s Name:

Course Title:



Question One

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) occurs naturally as a substance that aids neurotransmission in the brain. GHB is applicable in the hospital settings to treat a variety of conditions such as alcoholism, cataplexy, narcolepsy, as well as to regulate brain’s activities during sleep. The component influences several functions in the brain including boosting the body’s pain-suppressing system and elevating the growth hormone. Unfortunately, the use of GHB develops some concerns that require an address to avoid uncontrollable effects.

The present-day concerns surrounding the use of GHB vary in nature. Even though consuming the substance may be safe when the doctor provides guidance and supervision, the product may have severe effects when misused. The concerns revolve around the side effects that come with unlimited usage which include hallucination, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headaches, and uncontrolled sexual arousal. Other severe impacts that occur from using GHB in unsuitable forms encompass epilepsy, high blood pressure, and slowed heart rate.

Question Two

Caffeine exists as the rampantly used drug in the world because of availability. Even though consuming the product is safe when taken in low to moderate amounts, an escalating number of clinical surveys are revealing that some caffeine consumers are becoming addicted to the substance and cannot reduce their intake despite the increased awareness regarding the health issues associated with prolonged use. The element that creates dependency in caffeine becomes toxic when it accumulates in the body.

Caffeine provides antioxidants, and that can help to prevent ailments such as atherosclerosis, asthma, ulcerative colitis, obstructive pulmonary disease, type II diabetes, and ischemic perfusion. The product may also help to lower the risk of heart disease, cardiovascular risk, and cirrhosis of the liver. Finally, caffeine reduces the chances of developing the Alzheimer’s disease.

Question Three

The escalating misuse of drugs, especially among the young people compels the responsible parties to develop substance-abuse treatment programs with the hope of preventing increased use and the subsequent effects that come with prolonged use. Agencies and governments tend to take different approaches. Each group usually adopts a framework that will deliver the desired goals and objectives.

Creating the substance abuse treatment programs, nevertheless, experiences some challenges which make it problematic to help many addicts. One of the significant problems is lack of adequate support from the government and private organizations in adopting the right mechanisms. The second challenge revolves around the lack of expertise in the implementation process which derails the efforts to achieve the desired goals.

Question Four

The biomedical model of mental illness postulates that the strange psychological conditions are as a result of irregularities in the genetic structure or brain and, as such, create the need to develop chemical or medical interventions that specifically aim the biological deformity. Even though some feel that the model provides an accurate explanation of why some people acquire such abnormalities, critics think that it is likely to generate social segregation and increased stigma.  The structure, however, continues to provide valuable guidance to medical investigators who seek to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the causes of mental illness.

The biomedical model of mental illness is instrumental in the development of psychiatric drugs that help to regulate activities in the nervous system. The model guides manufacturers to know the ways of creating drugs that will specifically address brain problems. The model also gives directions on how to develop psychiatric medicines that help to solve some of the genetic malfunctions that may cause such health complications.

Question Five

People tend to buy drugs that they feel will help them to address minor health problems that they develop. The medicines sold to buyers directly with prescriptions from health professionals are called over-the-counter drugs. Over-the-counter drugs are different from prescription drugs that that may only be sold to buyers who have a valid order from a specialist.

Buyers can get a variety of over-the-counter drugs from the medical stores near them or from supermarkets that include medicines in their stock. Sellers have recorded an increased demand for sleep aids as over-the-counter drugs. Purchasers are increasingly demanding for drugs such as zolpidem, zaleplon, doxepine, and ramelteon which help people who suffer from insomnia. Pharmacists who own drug stores also witness an escalating number of buyers who request for cold and cough medicines. Buyers, however, need to seek medical assistance when the experiences milder symptoms.

Question Six

The biopsychosocial model of substance abuse treatment asserts that it is essential to consider how the psychological, social, and biological factors influence addiction. The framework proceeds to mention that the three elements may determine how a remedy process becomes successful. Individuals who seek to help addicts overcome their problem should apply the teachings of the model in handling the situation.

Considering the psychological, social, and biological factors while helping an addict overcome the problem may yield better results. The intervener, for example, may ensure that person undergoing the treatment do not experience psychological issues that may worsen their problems. Furthermore, the intervener may consider whether some biological factors influence the victim’s behavior.

Question Seven

The family systems serve a fundamental role in making substance-abuse prevention attempts successful. The family’s participation in helping members who have difficulties quitting drugs may strengthen the message that what the addict is doing is wrong and should stop. Furthermore, the family’s involvement provides all the support throughout the healing process.

The family’s participation has other benefits that may facilitate the rate at which an addict regains a stable state. The family gains a broader understanding of their member thus knowing the factors or issues that may put him or her at the risk of re-entering the habit following a successful remedy process. The family also serves as an essential part of the reformation process because one can gain helpful advice from the different persons who form the unit.

Question Eight

It would be incorrect to associate a valuable medicinal aspect such as medicine with the dark world of performance-enhancing drugs such as it happens with doping. Manufacturers develop medications to address the different health complications people form, but the individuals who engage in doping do so with the purpose of achieving their personal goals. Unfortunately, doping sometimes results in adverse health effects.

The public, nevertheless, cannot blame the manufacturers for developing drugs that can be misused by athletes. The drugs are applicable in other forms where they serve fundamental roles. It is upon the team instructors and the sport’s oversight committees to ensure that the sportspeople are free from the strength-enhancers.

Question Nine

The increased level of substance-abuse among school going children compels the learning institutions to develop prevention programs that they believe will salvage the problem. The implementers realize that some aspects of the plans work well while others experience complications that derail the efforts. The executors in this instance must identify the areas that perform well and the ones that show low performance and implement measures that would deliver a workable plan.

Several components of school-based abuse prevention plans have delivered the desired objectives in the past. Elementary schools, for instance, have successfully instilled learners with the awareness that alcohol and drug abuse is wrong and should not prevail. The Seattle Social Development Project is an excellent description of a plan that worked well in handling drug-related issues at the elementary schools in Seattle.

Question Ten

The socio-cultural perspective is becoming a suitable approach to understanding how social and cultural factors influence people. The model describes how the social and cultural factors shape a person’s mental processes and behavior. The model may also help to address some of the issues that come with drug dependence.

Different socio-cultural filters may have a significant impact on creating effective substance-abuse prevention plans. The coming together of people from different backgrounds, for example, provides the opportunity to learn how communities perceive drug use. Furthermore, the coming together informs addicts about how the broader society views substance abuse thereby creating the chance to quit.

The use of Artificial Intelligence in Supply Chain Management

The use of Artificial Intelligence in Supply Chain Management


Institutional Affiliation:










The use of Artificial Intelligence in Supply Chain Management

Background and Research Questions

Problem statement: Supply chain managers experience a wide range of problems that require an urgent address to achieve a better outcome in the functioning of these service providers. Leedy and Ormrod (2013) suggest that one of the most significant challenges facing supply chain manager (SCM) lies in the use of technological innovations that facilitate the activities in this area of service.

Background information: Imagine the challenges that come with handling large volumes of data that supply chain operations handle on a daily basis and ponder about the hurdles that supply chain managers may experience in the future if nothing happens very fast to salvage the situation. The concept of artificial intelligence that came into existence about 60 years ago is here to transform several hardships SCM experience in their activities surrounding the movement of products and services from one point to the other (Leedy and Ormrod, 2013). AI was created to develop machines that think in almost the same way as humans thereby being in the position to replace humans in areas that require intelligence (Min, 2014). The device has displayed significant signs of developing the decision-making process and various areas that the business endeavors to strengthen which encompass learning the business phenomena, analyzing data intelligently, and acquiring information (Min, 2014). More firms are becoming aware of the need to incorporate AI in the SCM process, and it is encouraging that a significant number is making promising strides in using the introduction to transform how they acquire goods from suppliers, handle the raw materials to produce finished goods, and release the products into the market. The corporations that are yet to fuse the system which is the next big thing in supply management miss out on the many benefits that come with using AI in SCM. It is encouraging that entrepreneurs are now coming up with strategic plans that define how they employ the use of AI to handle the supply chain process. It is also satisfying that the institutions record positive outcomes in their application, and this should motivate corporations to employ the device that will become more useful in the coming years.

Research Questions: The project seeks to answer some critical questions regarding the use of AI in facilitating the activities of supply chain management. The first research question in this case to identify the level of awareness among business corporations on how AI boosts SCM practices. The research question is in line with the topic of AI’s use in supply chain activities because it informs about the level at which companies apply technology to handle operations in this area. The research questions also relate to supply chain management because it provides insight into an area that the managers in this area can find to be valuable. The second research question is to identify the factors that inhibit some organizations from using AI in the right manner to facilitate SCM. The research question reflects the chosen topic because it informs about the areas that require transformation to achieve a better outcome in supply chain operations. The field of research also relates to supply chain management because it tells managers about some of the weak points that they need to address to become successful in their application of the tool. The third research question is to identify whether institutions are willing to embrace the technology considering the hurdles that come with applying the innovation. The research question reflects the chosen topic in the sense that it gives a hint on whether companies in the future will implement the system or whether organizations will adopt cheaper forms that do not require high financial investment. The area of research relates to supply chain management because it provides insight on the future trend regarding the next big thing in SCM. The findings of the research project will confirm that being able to overcome the hurdles that come with using AI in handling the supply chain process results in beneficial outcomes that may improve the company’s performance not only now but also in the future.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of the exploratory study is to equip supply chain managers with the awareness that it is fundamental to overcome the challenges surrounding the use of AI in SCM to attain better performance that may benefit the company. The findings of the research project will have numerous benefits to the practice of supply chain management thereby making it necessary for practitioners to pay considerable attention in this area. One of the possible benefits of the research project is that it reminds managers in charge of supply chain about the ways they can benefit from the technological improvement that is transforming the business sector. Managers in supply chain understand the need to shift from the traditional forms of managing the process which creates more chances of recording the satisfying outcome. The study is also likely to benefit the practice of supply chain management in the way it highlights the areas that require attention to achieve a successful result. Finally, the study will have a beneficial impact in the field of supply chain management, mainly, with the application of AI in handling the transition of goods the way it informs about some of the advanced AI forms that some of the leading companies apply the technology in their handling of the supply chain. It is upon the persons in the managerial positions to pick the information that finds valuable to their operations and put additional effort to achieve their wants.

Literature Review

Business organizations are rapidly digitizing their supply chain processes to differentiate and boost revenue generation. Chandra and Darbhe (2016) report of a survey by Accenture’s Technology Vision in 2016 in 11 nations and over 12 sectors which revealed that more than 85% of companies have adopted digital operations in their supply chain within the past one year. The firms are fast embracing technological ways of handling the process to manage the vast amount of data that is emanating from the process. AI is emerging as a useful tool for analyzing the data and further helps to gain a good comprehension of the variables in the supply chain and also provides insight on how to manage future scenarios. Apart from handling the large volumes of data emanating from the activities of the supply chain, AI is transforming the manufacturing of goods and how people intervene to oversee the processes. Chandra and Darbhe (2016) give the example of Siemens that is adopted an improved AI system that watches over the production line to a margin where they can go unsupervised for several days or even weeks. Siemens is also is also taking the initiative create the Industrie 4.0 program that will function as a fully-organized system that automates the whole supply chain. The program will automatically convert the demand and order information into production processes thus streamlining the creation of customized products.

Other than helping in the manufacturing process, AI is becoming handy in regulating supplier management and facilitating customer service and is also playing essential roles in logistics and warehousing. IPsoft, an American multinational company that helps firms to embrace automation, is a perfect example of a company that has created an AI program (Amelia) to assist in speaking with customers who bring in inquiries regarding the supply chain (Chandra & Darbhe, 2016). The company has trained Amelia to talk in more than 20 languages thereby making it possible to provide suppliers who come from diverse cultures. The program does not only give the company the chance to cut cost in hiring service providers in the department but also eliminates the possibilities of experiencing unethical issues that may emanate when employees who have poor communication skills get to handle customers who have a significant impact on the company’s performance. Logistics operations are set to undergo numerous transformations should all firms embrace the technological innovation. DHL that practices domestic and international transportation of goods is now applying autonomous forklift machines thus depicting a business that has attained the level of maturity in warehousing activities. The company employs specific codes that define the machine’s movement saving the company the need to hire people to perform the logistics operations. Chandra and Darbhe (2016) predict that the next step would be to see autonomous vehicles and drone ships taking charge of delivering goods to different destinations within and beyond the country.

AI is also helpful in handling the procurement process as it helps to achieve cost-reduction and compliance requirement by revealing the executed data within a good time. Special AI software automatically classifies the used data and is also checked for any errors and makes sure everything complies with the requirement before submission into another stage. Chandra and Darbhe (2016) give the example of Singapore City in China that is conducting a trial of using AI to recognize and stop incidences of fraud when going about the procurement process. The AI algorithm is an excellent example of software that aids in the procurement process in the way it analyzes data from the finance department, and also in the way it handles procurement orders and requests. The AI algorithm is also helpful in completing the procurement process in the way it approves tenders, arranges non-financial data for the government employees and workers in another sector, and also it assists in the identification of areas where corrupt deals are happening.

Indications reveal that AI is becoming a useful tool in the demand planning and predicting of future happenings in the area thus opening a broader avenue of achieving a better outcome in the coming years. Planning for demand appears to be a significant problem for many companies, but as Chandra and Darbhe (2016) point out in their article, several firms are trying to leverage analytics with the learning capabilities of machines to forecast changes in demand and patterns during future promotions. The companies that apply the model come up with a reliable and detailed framework that highlights the anticipated results of the trade fair for the sales and marketing unit. The firms that apply the device realize a 20% fall in forecast errors and a 30% reduction in losses that occur during transactions.

Artificial intelligence is also becoming useful in the reverse supply chain (RSC) that is widely applicable by companies that seek to recycle the products that reached the end of their useful period. Businesses around the globe are becoming aware of the merits that come with RSC and are introducing mechanisms that would give the chance to recycle used products to create profit-making opportunities. The increased desire to practice RSC compels supply chain managers to acquire techniques of improving the nature of reverse supply chain management (RSCM) which include the use of AI. The application of AI in the process can help to develop a network design that focuses on the establishment of an infrastructure that efficiently manages the reverse channel which often includes final-users, collectors, and remanufacturers. Xing et al. (2013) give the example of logistic suppliers’ development which they term to be a critical area of function within RSCM, EoL, and EoU. The variations between forward and reverse flow with regard to the cost and intricacy of transportation, storage, and handling operations compel firms to outsource their reverse logistics activities to third-party logistics operators that function using AI. Xing et al. (2013) provide the example of the artificial neural network (ANN), genetic algorithm (GA) and fuzzy system (FS) that function as some of the commonly applied third-party logistics providers used by companies that practice RSC. The AI programs usually abbreviated as 3PLs achieve multi-objective optimization that gives the chance to manage the incoming and outgoing data without experiencing significant shortcomings during the entire process.

The examples reveal that in the present dynamic world, companies that apply AI to complete the supply chain process have higher chances of gaining competitive advantage. AI fused with predictive analytics can not only assist to analyze big sets of data developed by the supply chain process but also assist companies to transform into a more advanced form of SCM (Chandra & Darbhe, 2016). As AI proceeds to handle new things which enlarge its competencies, it is rapidly becoming one of the best working tools in the current times and may become the next big thing in SCM.

Unfortunately, many supply chain managers are yet to understand how to apply AI in their operations due to some factors. Some managers, for example, lack the proper knowledge on how to use AI to achieve efficacy in their duties. Such leaders get the position without undergoing the proper scrutiny of their capabilities, or some fail to put much focus on this area of study while undergoing the training process thus acquiring insufficient on how the field ought to work (Msimangira & Tesha, 2014). Other than the manager’s inadequate knowledge in this area of practice, some institutions fail to put adequate investment in this area thereby making it impossible for the leaders to use AI to improve the supply chain process (Msimangira & Tesha, 2014). Some companies, for example, are afraid of the high financial burden that comes with using the technological practice to improve activities. Some organizations also feel that the undertaking requires the recruitment of highly qualified personnel that understand how the process function which is usually costly and highly demanding regarding their maintenance. Such inhibitory factors prevent companies that would benefit from improved supply chain processes the opportunity to gain from the technological form that is set to become the next big thing in supply management.

Research Method

Msimangira and Tesha (2014) perform an exploratory study to explore the global problems and risks facing the developing nations concerning logistics and warehousing sectors while paying close attention to Tanzania. The exploratory approach compels the investigators to use the qualitative way of collecting data using the case study approach which they consider to be suitable for the exploratory and the interpretive research technique. Msimangira and Tesha (2014) interview senior supply chain managers and acquire additional information from secondary materials which include the companies’ websites and yearly reports. The case study framework enables the surveyors to comprehend the issues facing SCM, particularly concerning the use of technology in facilitating the process. The case study examines why two public firms that stand thousands of kilometers apart within the same country have diverse experiences regarding their executions of supply chain activities. The companies are the largest in Tanzania functioning efficiently as part of the international supply chain. The similar factor was that the managers in the firms had participated in global supply chain activities for many years.

The researchers outline the data collection and analysis processes appropriately to achieve the desired outcome. Msimangira and Tesha (2014) who apply the triangulation multiple data sources of evidence collect data using semi-structured interview questionnaires that the senior leaders respond to via e-mail. The investigators also interviewed a couple of junior procurement and supplies officers who participated in the SCM process in both public institutions with the intention of limiting bias from one fundamental group of the respondent. The investigators use other forms of gathering data including direct observations, participant observation, and documentation to limit the study’s biases. Msimangira and Tesha (2014) also feel that incorporating multiple respondents and using several highly knowledgeable sources of information reduces the bias that may harm crucial interviews. Msimangira and Tesha (2014) employ the cross-case analysis method to analyze data from both firms which encompass cross-case synthesis, risks, matching, and multiple-source data reviewing.


The investigation reveals valuable insight that may help corporations to improve their management of supply chain processes. The study confirms that some firms are yet to incorporate technological innovations in their control of supply chain activities as much as some are making significant strides to digitize their operations (Msimangira & Tesha, 2014). Apart from the absence of integrated computerized network that connects with the suppliers, one of the public organization shows no signs of apply AI in its management of the supply chain. The other that makes attempts complains of challenges ranging from lack of stable internet coverage and the suppliers’ culture that is bound to traditional forms (Msimangira & Tesha, 2014). The participating managers reveal common problems such as the prevalence of outdated technology, lack of trust between the interacting parties, and lack of qualified personnel. The findings of the study answer the research questions in the way it shows that some companies still have a low level of awareness regarding the use of AI in boosting SCM. The investigation also informs that lack of appropriate knowledge, expertise, and the organizational commitment to improving the use of technology serve as obstacles to the application of the tool. Finally, the survey confirms that companies have the desire to incorporate the mechanism but may first have to overcome the inhibiting challenges to achieve the desired results.



Business proprietors and supply chain managers must consider several factors to overcome the difficulties that come with handling the process. An efficient way to overcome the hurdles that may inhibit the application of AI in SCM is to pay more attention during the training process rather than viewing this area as being insignificant and without value. Individuals who aspire to become supply chain managers should pay considerable attention to the teachings focusing on how to apply AI to improve the transporting, storing, marketing, and selling which are the critical processes of the supply chain. The trainees ought to develop the interest to become experts in this area and should spend more time conducting a personal investigation on how the field functions. Furthermore, the persons undergoing the training process may choose to consult with other groups including the trainers and practicing persons to gain extensive insight on how AI improves the supply chain process (Msimangira & Tesha, 2014).

Apart from gaining broad knowledge on how AI functions in boosting supply chain, it is essential for companies to put more investment in this area to attain the long-term benefits that come with using the technological innovation in bolstering supply chain activities. Business leaders, for example, need to acquire the equipment and software that would enable supply chain managers to apply the technology to their operations. The leaders should spare enough time to find out the most efficient programs that would work without breakdowns and which are likely to yield the best results without threatening flaws. The leaders may also spend the time to hire individuals who have advanced awareness on how to use AI to improve the supply chain process. Even though the hiring process might be costly and threatening to the organizational financial situation, the intervention by experts is likely to have a long-lasting impact on the way the firm handles its supply chain.

Other than seeking knowledge when aspiring to become a supply chain manager and putting more investment on AI usage, it might be essential to borrow how other companies that successfully apply the technique go about their activities and utilize similar forms. The department in charge of SCM may identify the organizations that have made significant strides on how they use AI to handle the movement of goods and services from one point to the other (Msimangira & Tesha, 2014). The team should then settle on a suitable day on when to visit the firm for an exchange program where the employees will get the chance to share ideas extensively. The workers and their leaders may use the opportunity to gain new insights that they may apply in their operations to achieve a better outcome.

Finally, it may be necessary to invite experts at the organization who provide guidelines on how to use AI to handle supply chain management. The gurus should be widely accepted as qualified personnel who have helped other institutions overcome their challenges in using the innovation, and should be skilled enough to be in a position to provide quick solutions to some of the erupting cases. The guest should inform the workers in charge of the functioning technology that achieving success with the tool requires courage and dedication, and that feeling inferior or having the belief that the company cannot deliver good results when using the application may lead to poor outcome. The organization might have to cope with the high cost of inviting the experts if it aspires to achieve the long-term benefits. Otherwise, it can miss the excellent and long-lasting effects of using the tool to facilitate supply chain operations.


Companies that rely on an efficient supply chain management process for the better outcome should take the initiative to infuse AI in their activities considering that this is the next big thing in SCM. It is evident that AI helps to complete several functions dealing with supply chain management and this becomes apparent in various areas that form part of the process. AI assists managers to enhance the manufacturing process and aids in facilitating supplier management as well as customer service. The device assists firms to boost procurement process thereby giving the enterprise the opportunity to record positive financial gain that emanates from the cost reduction the institution experiences. The device helps in demand planning and predicting of future which creates the chance to strategize SCM. The tool also attracts the companies that deal in RSC, and this exemplifies the diversity of the innovation that is sent to become more useful in the coming years. Despite the usefulness of the tool, many supply chain managers are yet to embrace the apparatus due to lack of knowledge and the organization’s inadequate investment in the area. The challenges prompt business leaders and the managers in charge of the supply chain to take urgent measures that are multi-dimensional. The teams in control of SCM shall record improved performance should trainees pay more attention in this area, and should the institution put more financial investment in this area. Sharing skills with firms that are already using the program may heighten how beginners are incorporating the next big thing in SCM in their undertakings.










Chandra, M., & Darbhe, A. (2016). Artificial intelligence: The next big thing in supply management. Retrieved from

Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2013). Practical research: Planning and design. New York, NY: Pearson Books.

Min, H. (2014). Artificial intelligence in supply chain management: Theory and applications. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, 13(1), 13-39.

Msimangira, K., & Tesha, C. (2014). Global supply chain practices and problems facing developing countries: A case study in Tanzania. Operations and Supply Chain Management, 7(3), 130-138.

Xing, B., et al. (2013). Artificial intelligence in reverse supply chain management. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 6, 1-6.

Research Proposal

Student’s Name:

Tutor’s Name:

Course Title:


Research Proposal

Medical practitioners across the world, particularly the speech-language therapists regularly experience transformations in their career, and this compels them to adopt features that would make them compatible with the changes. It is now evident that the activities of such professions only become successful when the parties participate in constructive communicative processes that just come about through the building of evidence-based practice and the conducting of a clinically-relevant investigation. Furthermore, developing the area requires the professionals to engage in a well-organized inter-professional inquiry and training that equip the investigators with adequate information concerning ways of building the communication processes (Kourkouta and Papathanasiou 66 and Papagiannis 51). The investigative procedures shall not only give the practitioner the opportunity to witness a smooth flow of operations but will also provide the ailing person the chance to fully participate in the intervention program thus increasing the possibilities of recording positive results from the therapy.

A speech-language therapist must provide guidelines on how to help the persons who suffer from complications that hinder them from engaging in constructive communication processes. The therapists, for example, need to develop a methodology that may increase the participation of patients who suffer from aphasia which Khanum (53) describes as the inability to understand and formulate coherent speech sounds because of severe damage to specific areas in the brain. The problem that may develop following an accident that leads to stroke (cerebral vascular), or as a result of brain trauma renders the victim almost unable to utter and comprehend language thus making it difficult for them to put their points across or get what others wish to inform them (Fromkin, Rodman and Hyams 25). Such a challenge may derail the efforts of a speech-language therapist who may take more time to help the persons who suffer from different conditions.

The community-based program will take a multi-dimensional approach with the aim of facilitating the rate at which the target group learns proper ways of communication. The method, for example, shall involve a process where the target population attends regular lessons on specific language topics that shall equip them with some of the fundamental skills that are necessary for any communication process. Language experts will take charge of the process to ensure that the trainees acquire the instructions that will help them develop in the most comfortable way possible and also to enforce measures that would eradicate any impediments that may hamper the spirit to learn. The teaching process will involve various teaching methodologies which encompass the use of visual images and videos, singing, repetition, and the use of group activities to widen the chances of retaining the information. The instructor may also have to incorporate some simple tests to identify whether the patients are making positive progress.

Other than engaging the target population in regular lessons, the intervening party shall increase the time the patients participate in communication processes with the other groups to widen their exposure to communicative forms. The increased time the patients have for interacting with individuals who do not have similar challenges will improve the way the challenged persons go about the communicative processes, and will also give the trainees the chance to pick skills that they feel will be important to their communication. The trainers, however, will guide how the sick persons engage with the others to make sure that they only take part in activities that are beneficial to them.






















Works Cited

Fromkin, Victoria, Rodman, Robert, and Hyams, Nina. An introduction to language. Thomson Asia Ltd, 2004.

Khanum, Farjana. “Influence of Broca’s Aphasia and Wernick’s Aphasia on Language.” Global Journal of Human-Social Science: A Arts & Humanities – Psychology, vol. 14, no. 9, 2014, pp. 52-56.

Kourkouta, Lambrini and Papathanasiou Joanna. “Communication in Nursing Practice.”             Materiasociomedica, vol. 26, no. 1, 2014, pp. 65-67.

Papagiannis, Fakhr-Movahedi . Talking with the Patient. University Studio Press, 2003.