Table of Contents


Abstract 3

Introduction. 4

Literature Review.. 4

Methodology. 5

Conclusion. 8

Works Cited. 9

















The aim of this paper was to review the different perceptions of Martin Luther King and his influence on the civil rights movement in America. Through qualitative means, different sources online were used to gather information on Martin Luther King Jr. character and ideals of social justice and equality. Although Dr. King was viewed as a hero by many, there are those who saw him as a social nuisance and disruptive to business. In addition, others disagreed with his passive resistance model while others thought his methods were a source of communal tension. Nonetheless, Dr. King led civil rights movement in America and saw the repeal of all segregation laws.














Martin Luther King Hero or Trouble Maker


Social justice and equality are a prerequisite for any democratic society to thrive. However, in many multicultural societies, biases, and stereotypes have been placed on the path of equality regardless of a person’s skin color. As a result, humans have enslaved other humans and perpetuated a culture where one race sees itself as being superior to another. America’s evolution from independence was characterized by racial bias and segregation against people of African descent, and this is the culture that Martin Luther King Jr. was born into and tried to change. Through his speeches and social action, he tried to remind America of its responsibility to its African American citizens. In many ways, Martin Luther King Jr. espoused the characteristics of some of the humankind’s greatest men. His passion for social justice, service to others, stand against violence, and belief in equality of all, made Martin Luther King Jr. one of America’s greatest civil rights activists.

Literature Review

America’s first civil war since its independence was fought on the basis of human equality. While most Northern States opposed slavery and wanted it abolished throughout the Federation, States in the South wanted its continuation. Although most believed in the independence constitution that stated that, “all humans are born equal,” practicing that aspect was opposed by many (Jefferson 206). Thus, although slavery was abolished after the Confederates surrendered to the Northern Army, racial segregation and unequal treatment of African Americans continued based on the color of their skin. It is against this backdrop that Martin Luther King Jr. was born in 1929.

Racial segregation in America was legally enforced in many states before 1964. During this period, African Americans had separate schools, housing areas, and employment opportunities, different health care and even military units which were ironically led by white officers Jefferson 206. Any transgression of segregation laws and all the other forms of discrimination was met with arrests and prosecution. For instance, in 1955, Rosa Perks was accused of violating city laws in Montgomery, Alabama and arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white male (Jefferson 206). This was happening in America even after it had gone to war to fight fascism and racial discrimination during the Second World War. The irony of these double standards was captured by the famous columnist of the black newspaper Pittsburgh Courier, George Schuyler who wrote, “Why should Negroes fight for democracy abroad when they are refused democracy in every American activity except taxpaying?” (Jefferson 207). Thus, although African Americans were free of slavery, they were not equal to the other citizens.

The acts of Rosa Parks in Montgomery, Alabama ignited a civil disobedience flame among African Americans who felt disenfranchised by the discriminatory laws all over America.

Thus, the clamor for civil rights did not begin after 1955, and it picked pace after the Rosa Perks incident. Earlier on, there had been attempts in various sectors to end discrimination and racial segregation. For instance, in 1954 in the case of Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court of the U.S.A ruled that segregation in public schools based on race was unconstitutional (History). This ruling provided a reference point for other litigations on segregation later on.


Information that has been used in this paper was gathered qualitatively through the internet. Historical information was reviewed from different websites that provided a basis for the arguments on Martin Luther King. In addition, qualitative self-report on attitude and personal reflection was used to come up with the recommendations and personal views where they appear.

Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement

Born during the period of racial segregation and limited civil rights for African Americans, Martin Luther King Jr. grew to be a great civil rights movement leader. Through his oratory prowess, King galvanized many people to stand up and demand justice and equal treatment. Through peaceful marches and sit-ins, Dr. King and the civil rights movement demanded greater economic freedoms and social liberties that were being denied to African Americans. As a result, he became a hero to many black people not only in America but other countries where people were facing oppressive governments. However, during his activism years before he was assassinated, King was arrested a total of 30 times for civil disobedience and other charges (Thekingcentre). As a result, other people saw him not as a hero but a trouble maker who did not adhere to the law. In addition, some white supremacist business people saw him as disruptive and an inciter and offered a bounty to anyone who killed Dr. King. Nonetheless, I perceive Dr. King as principally law abiding but with great convictions on his beliefs. As such, what he did or asked others to do was to bring out awareness of the divided country that was America.

When a group of people feel oppressed and need to do something about it, they can choose to resist the oppressor passively or aggressively. Martin Luther King Jr. chose the path of peaceful protest against all forms of segregation and unequal treatment. Through his “I have a dream” speech, Dr. King reminds America that it has an obligation to treat all its citizens equally.

As a church minister, Dr. King reminded his congregants that it was better to love the other person than to hate them. For instance, in his sermon “a time to break the silence” in New York Dr. King states, “a nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death” (Palazzo n.p). However, although the context of this sermon was the Vietnam War, Dr. King was averse to any form of violence regardless of the perpetuator.

Regardless of how good one is, not all people will agree with you. The same can be said of Dr. King’s nonviolent path to civil rights. Other actors were not so passive in the quest and advocated for a violent demand if the government did not listen. In Malcolm X and the Black Panther Movement, the violence narrative found a home. For instance, in his speech in Cleveland, Ohio titled “the ballot or the bullet” Malcolm X makes it explicitly clear that there were no two ways on getting civil liberties from the ‘oppressor’ (Social Justice Speeches). He says, “I believe in action on all fronts by whatever means necessary.” Through his speech, Malcolm was categorical that the option for lack of civil liberties was death. Thus, although they were after the same thing, Dr. King and Malcolm X were different in their approaches.

It is said that patience is a virtue. However, in 1963, Dr. King defied a court order barring him from holding any protest. He held a protest against the treatment of African Americans in Birmingham and was arrested and sent to jail. While in jail, he received a letter from other religious leaders asking him to avoid protests and instead seek dialogue. However, Dr. King answered them in his famous letter from Birmingham jail by stating, “We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.” Through this letter, King tried to explain to the religious leaders why it was necessary to demonstrate, sit-in, and disobey unjust civil laws. However, others saw him as an ‘outsider’ who had come to disrupt the peace. They urged him to avoid actions that created tensions between the races. Personally, I think Dr. King was right to take his protests to Birmingham for the injustice that was in Alabama was also being experienced in Birmingham.


There is no doubt that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. will live on a beacon of light for those who continue to seek social justice everywhere. Through his street actions and ability to inspire, King was able to lead a great civil rights movement that culminated in the abolishment of all segregation laws in America. However, other people saw King as a disrupter of peace and economic saboteur. In addition, his passive resistance was questioned by other black leaders who wanted a more radical resistance. Nonetheless, Dr. King remains an inspiration to many people around the world.












Works Cited Staff. “Brown v. Board of Education.”, A&E Television Networks, 2009, Accessed 6 May 2017

Jefferson, Robert F. Fighting for Hope: African American Troops of the 93rd Infantry Division in World War Ii and Postwar America. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

“Letter from Birmingham City Jail.” The Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Accessed 6 May 2017

Palazzo, c. “Martin Luther King, Jr. – Beyond Vietnam – A Time To Break The Silence | Archives | Veterans Today.” U.S. Military Veterans, Accessed 6 May 2017

“The Ballot or the Bullet.” Social Justice Speeches, Accessed 6 May 2017




Assignment 4















Assignment 4

Question 1

Utilitarianism is a theory that emphasizes ethical practice as that oriented towards ensuring the wellbeing of others. Unlike theories such as ethical egoism that regard ethical actions as those that benefit the individual, utilitarianism is universal. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory that defines ethics or virtue based on the outcome of actions. As such, a virtuous existence is defined as the ability to conform one’s actions towards ensuring the greatest benefit to many. In general, a utilitarian outcome will be characterized by a greater amount of happiness gained by many people as well as a minimum amount of pain that affects a few individuals. As such, utilitarianism is a theory that advocates for actions to be oriented towards benefiting others as opposed to being confined towards individual gain.

Jeremy Bentham and Stuart Mill are key proponents of utilitarianism, as part of their larger support for teleological theories that advocate for good over evil. According to both philosophers, ethical existence is exemplified by the ability to ensure happiness that is exemplified through pleasure prevails within society, as opposed to evil that is equated to pain. Stuart Mill argued utilitarianism as the most effective way of ensuring rights and freedoms are respected within society. On the other hand, Bentham’s view of utilitarianism was largely geared at dissuading or negating actions that are self-centered or confine pleasure and value to the individual context. Bentham and Mill argue that the premise of ethical existence is based on adopting a lifestyle outlook that advocates for the greatest among of universal good and the least amount of pain or evil.

Kant’s deontological ethics are largely basedon considering the nature of actions as opposed to the outcome like in the case of utilitarianism. Kant’s theory includes an added focus on the ability of a person or agent to meet or conform to an established ‘norm’, ‘duty’, or standard. According to Kant’s theory, the ethical nature of an action is largely indicative of correlated to its rational outlook. As such, an action may be considered ethical if it conforms to a rational or moral obligation, irrespective of whether the outcome is wrong. Therefore, Kant’s theory does not consider the consequences of an action and emphasizes the trend towards ethical existence as one that is based on considering actions as the prime objective and not a means to an envisioned end.

Kant’s theory defines the aforementioned norm, duty, or standard as a categorical imperative that forms the basis of ethical existence. The categorical imperative, which may be compared to rational action, refers to a principle or code of moral rules that people should practice for them to considered ethical. Since the suggested principle or categorical imperative is a predetermined standard of practice, then it becomes applicable to all individuals and is in turn considered a universal maxim that everyone should follow. Therefore, Kant’s categorical imperative is largely geared towards establishing a set of rules and actions that exemplify virtuous or ethical existence. For instance, actions such as bravery andshrewdness by a soldier constituted Kant’s categorical imperative and were ethical, despite the fact that they could result in pain to other people.

The greatest benefit of Kant’s theory is that it assigns standards of morality or moral existence in line with meeting performing actions that are right, which is particularly important if one considers that there are actions undeniably rights or wrong. However, the theory may be faulted for its negation of the impact or consequences of actions. On the other hand, utilitarianism is often considered difficult to apply based on the general inability to identify an effective measure pleasure or value that is expected from actions. In general, it is often difficult to determine the levels of value or loss occasioned to individuals following an action, which makes it a complex theory to impart within regular social settings. In addition, utilitarianism is predisposed to various ambiguities especially if one was to consider that particular outcomes may seem ethical yet the means used to accomplish them were largely unethical. For instance, consider the ethical dilemma that comes from a situation where the murder of an individual may seem ethical of the outcome is the safety of other millions of people. However, utilitarianism has a greater ethical standard that Kant’s theory based on its emphasis on the virtuous nature of outcomes. On one part, utilitarianism is largely based on ensuring happiness supersedes pain through the ensuring positive outcomes. Moreover, the universal nature of utilitarianism means that more people stand to gain from ethical practices. While Kant’s theory may have a sense of universality by indicating categorical imperatives; the theory does not necessarily consider the notion of holistic happiness or value gained from performing actions.

Question 2

Ayn Rand was a historical supporter of the theory on ethical egoism. The theory is a moral doctrine that considers ethical existence as the ability to orient actions and outcomes towards the benefit of the agent (or person performing the action). Rand argued that ethical existence is based on the individual (agent) working towards achieving his or her interests. According to Rand, the aspects of self-interest implied in ethical egoism may not be inherently true, since some actions have a suggestedutilitarian oruniversal value. For instance, actions that include helping others in society may be utilitarian, but establish their egoist nature based on the fact they bring pleasure to the agent.

Brain Medlin’s response to ethical egoism was largely based on describing the arbitrary (and sometimes abstract) nature of ultimate ethical theories. According to Medlin, ethical behavior and existence are immutable concepts that cannot be reduced to specific theories such as ethical egoism. As such, identifying a suitable ethical conclusion will come from establishing a premise that is accepted by everyone. Therefore, ethical egoism may not be considered a justified form of virtuous existence if it is not seen to conform to an ethical premise accepted by a second or more parties. In general, Medlin argues that ethical egoism lacks validity since people seek a world where ethical actions are accepted and appreciated by others.

Medlin’s response is justified since adopting an egoist outlook may create a situation of conflict when one or more self-interest perspectives or pursuits clash. While ethical egoism may also mean gaining pleasure from helping others, the ethical perspective largely contradicts the social nature of human beings. In addition, ethicalegoism is based on a self-defeating principle of individual happiness, since egoists also find it difficult to accept that they adopt the suggested practice. Overall, Medlin is right in asserting that ethical egoism is not a plausible approach for ethical existence within human society.





















The location decision was an important business decision for Stengard and Piel as it was fundamental to the success of their business. Before making the decision to move to a new location, the entrepreneurs needed to consider the needs of their company, its clients, employees, materials, and equipment that would be required to successfully complete it services (Salvaneschi, 2002). Stengard and Piel had to ensure that their business had enough space for all the equipment that it required in producing its products and services. At the same time, they needed to ensure that the new location would be convenient to their customers by making sure that it could be accessed easily and extend a feeling of safety and security to their clients upon their arrival and exit from the facility. Therefore, moving to the new location was a critical decision for the two entrepreneurs as it offered tax breaks, better financial assistance, and the availability of an affordable workforce.

Recognizing that their new location was within an enterprise zone was fundamental in determining the types or permits and zoning ordinances that the company needed to take into consideration before deciding to relocate. By moving to an enterprise zone, their company was set to receive both tax and regulatory relief (Entrepreneur, 2012). The zoning ordinances that need to be considered include the emissions, location, and size of the new location.

The internet would provide a fundamental avenue through which the company would be able to expand its business even further. At the very least, they need to set up a website that provides an extensive description of their company and the products it has to offer (Jones, 2014). While the nature of their products is set to limit its number of internet-based transactions, it would play an important role in advertising the company products and communicating with its clients.




Entrepreneur. (2012). Zoning and permits. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved from

Jones, D. J. (2014). Importance of success in internet marketing: Role of good marketing acumen in internet business. New York, NY: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Salvaneschi, L. (2002). Location, location, location. New York, NY: PSI Successful Business Library.


Application Software



Application Software




Application Software

An application software is a computer program aimed at perform a group of synchronized tasks that improve users’ productivity and supports the tasks. Application software are created to improve the user experience with tasks like creating documents and as such they are end user program.

Web browser

A web browser is a software application used to search, locate, retrieve, and display content on the World Wide Web or internet. It is the application that enables a user to search for content like information on web pages, images, videos, and other files on the internet. A web browser is a software application that contacts the web server with the keyed in instruction or web search specification and relays the information back to a computer or internet enabled device. Web browsers are mainly for personal computers or those that function on the mobile phone operating system (Jacobs & Walsh, 2004). Browsers are fully-functional software suites that can display all the hosted content on the web servers and are equipped with plug-ins that can be programmed to extend their capabilities from accessing and displaying information to playing videos and music. The most common web browsers are Microsoft internet explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari and Opera. Most people use the browsers for the most basic task which is accessing information and logging into social media site, accessing emails, listening and downloading music and movies. However, I use browsers to design web pages, videoconferencing, playing games online, uploading information, and creating other software applications that ease the accessibility of my computers capabilities.  I think that despite different browsers having different interfaces and capabilities, the web browser is the most important software application as it gives users access to the information on the web server. It is the core of the digital world as people cannot be digital without having access to uploading data and overall information sharing in the web space.

Media Player

Media player is a software program that plays multimedia files like videos, music and video. It is a software that gives a digital equivalent of the traditional players’ functions like, pause, play, forward and rewind. Most operating system have an inbuilt media player but there are companies that have created independent players that have better features. Media players are either audio or video players depending on the developers’ intended purpose with video equipped with features that allow playing of digital video while audio players focus on playing digital audio files (Collier, 2013). Most media players have additional features that allow a user to create playlists, arrange the media files and event enhance them by creating visualization. While most people use them to listen and watch music, videos and movies I use it to enhance the sound effects on track, discover lyrics of songs on occasion access online radio. I believe that the media player is a very crucial software application as it helps people listen and watch media files on their computers without necessarily having access to the internet.

Word Processor

Word Processor is a software application that enables the creation, editing, formatting, and printing of documents. It is the most common and earliest computer application as it aids in the creation, storage and duplication of documents (Seguin, 2013). The software application has evolved to include a variety of task that can combine text, images and graphics. It is a software suite that is comprised of one or more programs that can be used to create different types of documents. Microsoft Office Suite is the most common is comprised of several programs that create text, presentations and math documents that are very important in the corporate and education system. In addition to creating basic documents I use word processor to create fliers and pamphlets for by part time job as graphics designer. I think that word processors are a revolutionary applications that have made document creation and presentation easier and thus encouraging creativity.


Spreadsheet applications are computer programs that allow users to create and manipulate tables of values arrange in rows and columns. The application allows the manipulation of values in cells that can be used to represent different data. Spreadsheet let users add formulas that dictate the relationships between the different values and are used documents that require mathematics like accounting documents (Seguin, 2013). Spreadsheets are very handy when it comes to data entry, analyzing and calculating different what-if scenarios based on the values in the cells and the linking formula. I think that spreadsheets are important as they create documents that reduce the margin for era in financial and statistical documents.

Photo Editor or Graphics

Photo editing software is used to manipulate and enhance digital images and rages from application that can do basic functions like resizing the images to tools used by professional photographers. They have evolved to include the creation of images like animations and video editing. The software suites ate comprised of different programs that are used to edit different graphics like photos, drawings and videos (Collier, 2013). With advancements in technology the photo editing applications have increase especially do to social media and YouTube which require basic skills of photo editing to enhance pictures. I use photo editing software to edit my video, create animations and edit the pictures I post on social media site like Instagram and Facebook. While the applications are necessarily, the have increased the level of edited and unoriginal content on the internet.



Collier, M. (2013). Introducing Microcontrollers: Hardware, Software and Applications. Luxembourg: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Jacobs, I., & Walsh, N. (2004, December 15). Architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One. Retrieved from:

Seguin, D. (2013). Computer Applications with Microsoft Office 2013. St. Paul, MN: EMC Paradigm, US.



Race and Biology



Race and Biology




Race and Biology

The greatest vice and cause of separation and segregation between human beings has always been race with people with one type of skin color considering themselves more superior to other people a notion that has caused great rifts. Race has always been considered as a biological differentiation among human beings with the white population being referred to as the most superior and the black closest to the apes and as such the least evolved of the human race. The focus on the differences in skin color has been at the center of the debate with very few people stopping to analyze the biological or scientific evidence to back the same claims. Race has nothing to do with biology but everything to do with behavior, geography, and the adaptations of human beings to their environment for survival. Therefore, the visible differences observed in the different people across the world are not because of the biological differences but because of the environment the people exist.

People have been preconditioned to believe that the greatest differences between the human racial variations can be explained by comparing and contrasting visible physical disparities like the skin color. The concept of race and racism was nonexistent before the colonial period as it was only promulgated by the Europeans in their attempts to assert their superiority over the Native Americans and the African they exported for slavery. However, the scientific studies that have been conducted in the recent centuries have proved the theorems that support the clear demarcations of the human race as baseless. The studies have shown that the racial classifications that have been erected have as low as six percent differences in the gene composition which is compared to the over ninety percent in physical differences (American Anthropological Asociation, 2016). It is to mean that biologically the differences between a white, black, Asian, and Latina are very minimal as they bare almost similar and overlapping genes. Hence, the different ‘racial groups’ are not subspecies of the humankind seeing as the overlapping and shared genetic material has maintained it as a single species.

The main difference and that which people pay more attention to are the distinct physical variations that exist between the said groups. The physical distinctions do not occur abruptly but gradually over geographical areas and are inherited independently of one another. For instance, the color of the skin is greatly associated with the geographical location than the genes and varies from light to dark from the temperate to the tropical areas respectively. However, research has shown that while people associate the visible physical differences with genetic superiority or inferiority, it is not the case as evidence show more genetic differences within the racial classification that exist between two racial classifications (American Anthropological Asociation, 2016). Therefore, the truth about the racial differences can be traced from external factors other than biology seeing as the differences between the races are smaller than those within the race.

Therefore, all human populations differ from one another especially physically because of different geographical adaptations that they are subjected to ensure their survival. For instance, people living in very sunny areas have darker skin as an adaptation to prevent skin cancer. The differences are also as a result of intermarriage and migration from one location to another which creates distinct differences in the physical features as a survival mechanism (RACE, 2016). Therefore, the concept of race is more social that it is biological as it was advanced during the colonial era in a bid to identify the different statuses of people in America and Europe.

The concept of race has been greatly misconceived as Race has nothing to do with biology but everything to do with behavior, geography, and the adaptations of human beings to their environment for survival. The visible differences are as a result of the geographical location of the person having them and not the genetic material. Hence, the concept of race is more social that it is biological seeing as when a child is born he or she does not know racial differences and is only made aware of them by what the society indoctrinates in him or her with little to no scientific backing.



American Anthropological Asociation. (2016). AAA Statement on Race. Retrieved from:

RACE. (2016). RACE Are We So Different? Retrieved from:



Five Psychology Terms





Five Psychology Terms


Distress is a form of negative stress that leads people to have high anxiety. People suffering from this form of stress find it hard to cope with certain situations and their overall well-being is negatively affected. Distress leads to unpleasant feelings on an individual due to heightened concern over the stressor (Sheldon and King 216). I experienced distress when my grandmother passed on. At that time, it was hard for me to cope with the gap that she left. She was my closest friend, and I felt a great loss. It was hard for me to eat, drink, and talk to my family and friends.


Aptitude is an inherent or acquired ability or capacity to do something. It is a form of intelligence or quickness to learn and apply new concepts in doing something. Aptitude enables an individual to fit easily into a given role. People who have high aptitude can easily and quickly learn new concepts in a given place such as in the workplace. Therefore, aptitude is what enables a person to be apt in doing something (Braun, Virginia, and Clarke 99). For instance, my sister told me last month that she took an aptitude test when she attended an interview for the position of a human resource manager. She told me that the test was meant to test whether she can handle certain scenarios that are common in the workplace.



Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance is the psychological discomfort that a person experiences when he or she holds two beliefs that contradict one another. It is the feeling that something has to be done to eliminate the inconsistency of certain behaviors. Cognitive dissonance is the urge to seek internal harmony by reducing dissonance (Sheldon and King 216). A good example is when I moved from one high school to another. In my previous school, I used to take the first position. However, in my new school, I took position ten. This bothered me, and I had to do something about it: work harder and seek ways of reaching position one.

Social Loafing

Social loafing is the tendency of people to exert less effort when doing something. It describes people’s character of not working as much harder as they would do when they are doing something individually. People working as a group are likely to withdraw their efforts from the project they are working on (Sheldon and King 216). I remember one time when we had a group assignment to work on in our course. Apparently, the assignment was submitted late because some members failed to submit their contributions on time. As their group leader, I had to make a follow-up to ensure each member submits his or her contribution.


Extraversion is the tendency to seek social connection. It is characterized by talkativeness, excitability, and sociability. People who are extraverts are usually easy-going and are described as being positive. Extraversion is also characterized by high enthusiasm (Sheldon and King 216). A good example is my cousin whom we attended a wedding together last December. She quickly formed relationships with people attending the wedding. By the time we left the wedding, she already had ten new contacts, and one of them was a top chief executive officer in one of the banks in the country. Personally, I left the wedding without any contact, and she laughed at me a lot. She said I should emulate her.






















Works Cited

Braun, Virginia, and Victoria Clarke. “Using thematic analysis in psychology.” Qualitative research in psychology, vol. 3, no.2, 2006, pp. 77-101

Sheldon, Kennon M., and Laura King. “Why positive psychology is necessary.” American psychologist, vol. 56, no.3, 2001, pp. 216.



Changes in Technology and their Effects on Schools





Changes in Technology and their Effects on Schools

Technology is advancing at a high speed with every day bringing developments that are aimed at easing access to information and navigation process of basic activities. With the current speed and trends in technology, there will be a lot of changes that will influence how people conduct daily and core activities by the year 2035. Schools and the education system are projected to be one of the greatest benefactors if the current trends are anything to reference. Therefore, the changes in technology will have both positive and adverse effects to schools and the education system as a whole by 2035.

The school system will be affected on several levels by the development in technology some of the changes will have the positive effects while others will have negative consequences that will adversely affect all parties. For instance, education could become cheaper in comparison to the current costs. The fall in price is projected to be as a result of the introduction of online classes, and virtual lectures which reduce the amount of money spent on acquiring and maintaining the physical locations. The students will be able to attend classes from home either on their laptop or gadgets that will contain all the relevant study material. Moreover, the advancement will give rise to more technology companies that will specialize in offering the needed gadgets and study materials to the students which will, in turn, create jobs for many individuals. However, the technology will affect the economic position of professions in the teaching sector seeing as virtual classrooms, and online classes will directly affect their job security rendering them jobless. Thus, economically, the schools and education system will experience both positive and negative economic effects in equal measure.

Socially and psychologically, the school fraternities will be greatly affected on either side of the scales. For instance, the education system is expected to improve significantly as technology will reduce many hurdles that students encounter especially in their research. The hurdles will be reduced by the fact that new systems that pool resource materials will be made readily available for the students (How Has Technology Changed Education?). Moreover, the students will have access to virtual teachers who will have all the information that they could require and be accessible to all students at all times. It will, in turn, reduce the problem of teacher shortage as a virtual or robot teacher can be prompted by a student at any time. However, the quality of education in terms of human connection will be reduced if not completely eradicated seeing as the students will be taught by robots and not people. Moreover, the students might develop anti-social behavior because of the limited interactions with their teachers and peers which may increase the number of students who have psychological disorders. Therefore, advancement in technology may cause addiction, degrade the value of human interaction in schools, and results in the development of psychological disorders associated with limited human interactions.

Schools and the education system will also be affected politically and economically due to the projected advancements in technology by 2035. The technology will ease most of the processes like dormitory allocation, exams, timetables, fees payment, and course allocations among others. Thus, the simplification of the process will reduce bureaucracy in the education system and reduce corruption and other politically motivated problems. Moreover, technology will have a more positive impact on the environment as it will reduce pollution seeing as the education system will be paperless attributed to the replacement of paper with online documentation.

Therefore, the projected technological developments in schools and education system by 2035 have both negative and positive changes that will proportionately impact on the quality and accessibility of education. The progression in technology will have various social, political, economic, environmental, and psychological impacts on all aspects of the education system.


Works Cited

Purdue University. “How Has Technology Changed Education?” Purdue University, 2017, <> Accessed 24 May 2017.







Racism and Society






Racism and Society

Millennials and Color Blindness

The article takes the perspective that white millennials do not understand the nature and problem associated with racism. Instead, they have been raised to be color blind, and to eliminate the construct of race (Smith). This affects their overall perception of the problem of racism.

Color Blindness vs. Race Consciousness

The author discusses the problem of color blindness and how it affects racial clarity and racial consciousness (Burke). The best solution is to shed the contradiction brought about by past and present racial experiences and find better ways of moving forward to encourage equal opportunity.

Racism without Racists

This article discusses the differences between how black people and white people perceive the issue of racism. People in racial minorities focus more on the biases they face rather than overt oppression (Blake). On the contrary, white people think more on the lines of hostility and criticism faced by the minorities.

Professor Bonilla Silva Lecture

The professor argues that it is difficult for all the races in the United States to get along due to various reasons, the most important one being white supremacy (Bonilla-Silva). He also adds that there are other structural factors in play including economic disparity.

Dinesh D’Souza interview

In his interview, Dinesh explains that the main reason for black failure is their dysfunctional structure rather than racism (Dinesh). He explains that black people have been raised in a culture that encourages them to remember their historical despair rather than focusing on restructuring and developing their community.

NYTs bit on Asian Americans and Race

Different Asian Americans explain their perspective on race as it relates to them. Some of their concerns include being able to speak and act like white people (New York Times). Asian Americans have been raised to embrace the model minority myth which influences their social status and how they relate to other races.

NYTs bit on Growing up Black

This documentary presents the problem of racism from the perspective of young black men. They give their experiences on how they are still stereotyped as they walk on the streets, in their classes, and in other social settings (New York Times). Evidently, the problem of race is still prevalent and it affects how these young men view themselves.

NYTs bit on White Americans on Race

This documentary presents the subject of racism from the perspective of white people (New York Times). Based on their interviews, it is evident that they have a challenging time discussing this subject not only among themselves but also with other minority races.

NYTs bit Latinos on Race

In this documentary, different Latinos explain the challenges they face as they attempt to blend in with the American culture (New York Times). Some of the problems they face relate to being unable to find their identity in the society as they are expected to embrace new traditions while abandoning their traditions.


What about Native Americans?

Native Americans talk about some of the misconceptions that the general American society has about them (Teen Vogue). These misconceptions mainly revolve around their traditions, their way of life and the assumption that they live on hand-outs given to them by the government.

Morgan Freeman’s assertion

To some extent, Morgan Freeman’s assertion that the best way to get rid of racism would be to stop talking about it altogether would be a suitable approach to the problem. In the current society, racism has become a very serious problem affecting the majority and minority alike. With regards to racial minorities, focusing on race affects how they perceive themselves and how they relate to others in the society. For example, when minorities immigrate into the country, they are encouraged to adapt to the new culture and this affects them both mentally and also in the way they relate to other cultures.

Furthermore, talking about racism generally affects the social construct of society. People have been raised in a society where they have to be aware of the racial differences that separate them from others. So far, there have been a lot of social problems revolving around the concept of race owing to the emphasis placed on this issue. Racial minorities are encouraged to embrace a certain way of life that would make them more “American” thereby enabling them to be more accepted in the society.

A suitable solution to end the problem of racism would be to promote multiculturalism. People from different races and cultures should be encouraged to explore their history and to embrace their culture rather than being assimilated into the American culture. It is important to understand that there are different cultures in the typical American community, and that each culture has something to offer. Multiculturalism is a fair and efficient system which allows individuals to freely express themselves thereby facilitating a better approach towards the different social issues faced by different communities.

The American society cannot be defined by one culture or particular traditions. It is important to recognize that people come from different cultures, and assimilation only works towards influencing people to follow a particular way of life. However, through multiculturalism, people can share their history and understand where they come from more effectively. Talking about racism only goes a long way as to highlight the fact that it exists, but no suitable solution is offered. As a result, the society does not progress, and it keeps on focusing on the negative aspects associated with this vice. Conversely, focusing on other positive aspects such as multiculturalism empowers minority groups. It also helps the general society to overlook the aspect of race and focus on other important factors that promote social development.














Works Cited

“6 Misconceptions about Native American People | Teen Vogue.” YouTube, uploaded by Teen Vogue, 29 Nov 2016, Accessed 20 May 2017

“A Conversation About Growing Up Black | Op-Docs | The New York Times.” YouTube, uploaded by The New York Times, 8 May 2015. Accessed 20 May 2017

“A Conversation About Growing Up Black | Op-Docs | The New York Times.” YouTube, uploaded by The New York Times, 9 Jul 2015. Accessed 20 May 2017

“A Conversation with Asians on Race | Op-Docs | The New York Times.” YouTube, uploaded by The New York Times, 6 Apr 2016, Accessed 20 May 2017

“A Conversation With Latinos on Race | Op-Docs | The New York Times.” YouTube, uploaded by The New York Times, 7 Mar 2016, Accessed 20 May 2017

“Racism Is Not The Cause Of Black Failure.” YouTube, uploaded by Dinesh D’Souza, 11 Dec 2014, Accessed 20 May 2017

Blake, John. “The new threat: ‘Racism without racists.’.”, 27 Nov 2014, Accessed 20 May 2017

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. “Why Can’t We Just Get Along?…” YouTube, uploaded by Brown University, 2 Jul 2015, Accessed 20 May 2017

Burke, Meghan A. “Colorblindness vs. Race Consciousness–An American Ambivalence.” The Society Pages, 24 Jul 2013, Accessed 20 May 2017

Smith, Mychal Denzel. “White millennials are products of a failed lesson in colorblindness.” PBS News Hour, 26 Mar 2015, Accessed 20 May 2017



Cultural Expectations in Japan for New Businesses


Cultural Expectations in Japan for New Businesses




Cultural Expectations in Japan for New Businesses

The world is becoming a global village which creates the need for companies to expand into new markets to give a broad market to their products and increase profitability. Venturing into a new country can be very challenging especially if the cultures between the countries of origin and the new one are very different. For instance, if an organization seeks to venture in a country like Japan they ought to understand some of the basic cultural practices that could stand between the success and failure of business.

Language is a major element of culture that could determine the success seeing as the official language is Japanese and only a minuscule percentile of non-natives speak Japanese. Additionally, most people in Japan do not speak English and as such language could create a barrier in the day to day running of the business (Sosnoski & Narumi, 2014). Secondly, the entrepreneurial culture in Japan is very different as compared to that in most countries in the West. In Japan, the people have a high regard for hierarchy including in small matters like who sits where and before who in a meeting and as such it can create a barrier if one is not conversant.

Furthermore, the Japanese are very hospitable and accommodating, but they have very distinct moral values and ethics that have been preserved for centuries. Thus, they tend to be very traditional without blurred lines, and it could be difficult to influence them into trying new products that they are not familiar with or that seem to go against their moral code (Sosnoski & Narumi, 2014). The main religion in Japan is Shinto and Buddhism, and as such when introducing a product in their market, it should be sensitive to the major beliefs preserved by the faiths. While the culture is striving to promote gender equality, most of the social institutions are run by men seeing as Japan has a masculine culture which means that most business negotiations and interactions are carried out by the men in the society while women offer a subordinate role.

Therefore, identifying and being familiar with the cultural expectations and practices in Japan offers real insight into how to deal with the people. It also ensures that the introduced product in the country is relevant and will increase the profit margins of a country without stepping on cultural toes.



Sosnoski, D., & Narumi, Y. (2014). Introduction to Japanese Culture. Claredon, VT: Tuttle Publishing.



Creating a Security Policy



Creating a Security Policy


Walden University













Creating a Security Policy

Separation of Duties Requirements

Security tools are measures taken to secure a data framework from attacks against the secrecy, honesty, and accessibility of personal computers’ frameworks, arrangements and the information they use. In addition, the security controls are selected and connected in light of a hazard assessment of the data framework (Henry 2007). These security tools require different persons to actualize their operation. Legitimate division of requirements, obviously, is intended to ensure that people do not have clashing duties or provide details regarding themselves or other personnel.

There are simple tests for separation of duties. In the first place, it is necessary to inquire whether anyone adjusts or distributes one’s financial information without being scrutinized. For the second test finds out whether any individual can obtain delicate data. The last test inquires whether any person has impact on controls outline, usage and announcement of the viability of the security frameworks. If the response to any of these inquiries is positive, then it is necessary to investigate the connection of all obligations.

Presently, as this relates particularly to security, the person in charge of planning and executing security cannot be recognizable to the employee who is responsible for testing security, directing security reviews, and observing and giving an account of security. Consequently, the relationship of the individual in charge of data security ought not to be announced to the Chief Information Officer as is generally the case.

Detachment of obligations is a typical arrangement when individuals are dealing with cash, so misrepresentation requires an action of at least two groups. This incredibly lessens the probability of wrongdoing. Data ought to be dealt with similarly. Division of obligations, as identified with data frameworks, is not only a conceivable Sarbanes-Oxley issue but rather is a prerequisite for PCI consistence (Howard 2014). It is accordingly basic that an association structure must be outlined to such an extent that no individual acting alone can trade off security controls.

There are five essential alternatives for accomplishing detachment of obligations in the data security space (Henry 2007).

  • 1: Have the individual in charge of data security answer to CSO (chief security officer) who deals with data security and physical security, and the CSO reports specifically to CEO.
  • 2: Have the individual in charge of data security answer to the Chairman of the Audit Committee.
  • 3: Use an outside organization to screen security, assess security reviews and security testing, and the organization provides the information to the Board of Directors or the Chairman of the Audit Committee.
  • 4: Have the individual in charge of data security answer to the top managerial staff.
  • 5: Have the individual in charge of data security answer to the official accountable for funds like the CFO.

The issue of separation of obligations is developing in significance. An absence of clear and brief duties regarding the CSO and CISO has caused a complex occurrence. It is essential to distribute operations, advancement, and testing of security and all controls to lessen the danger of unapproved action or access to operational frameworks or information. Duties must be allocated to people to implement governing rules inside the framework and limit the open door for unauthorized access and misrepresentation.

Control systems with separate obligations are accountable to scrutiny by external inspectors. Evaluators used to take into account the above review report when deciding on various risks that could affect the policy to high levels. With this approach, it is simply a question of time before IT security problems begin to arise (Anand, Saniie, and Oruklu, 2012). For this objective reason, it is important to initiate separation of obligations according to IT security guidelines with participation of an outside examiner. Introduction of such measures, which, however, must be case-specific, can reduce financial and political risks.

Legal Obligations

The legal obligations that an organization should imply for its staff in order to address security issues include the following.

  • One must keep all recruitments for the business structure forward. For example, one’s business entity title must be restored when due and one should stop annual returns in the event that one works for an organization with security regulations.
  • The Corporations Act 2001 includes requirements that identify administration of procedures to handle financial information of a company.
  • Taxation necessities of companies incorporate PAYG and GST.
  • If one enters into an association, one’s consultant ought to draw up a collected contract before starting any trade, allocation, partnership, or making any budgetary duties.
  • Protecting a secure Internet protocol (IP) gives one the lawful qualification to that address. One can ensure one’s IP utility trademarks, permits, and outlines.
  • One should survey and, if suitable, restore IP insurance on a frequent basis; for instance, trademarks must be restored into the seamless arrangement that enables them to function like clockwork.
  • IP issues are the most difficult to secure, and one ought to look for professional-level warnings.
  • Business pledges should apply for all members of the staff.
  • Business partners should be chosen in accordance with the set of working demands and determination criteria established for the organization. There should also be clear procedures for selecting staff members and communicating with them.
  • Work should be offered with account of states of honors, understanding, and business contracts.
  • All employees ought to undergo training upon enlistment to become acquainted with the working conditions and to be aware of any work-welfare and security issues. A deliberately created onboarding procedure can shield the business from hazards, including health, security, and ecological issues, separation and unreasonable dismissal claims. Different written-information booklets are also necessary (Anand, Saniie, and Oruklu, 2012). They should inform the staff about the measures for keeping the working environment safe and about legitimate commitments when preparing the employees.
  • Before dismissing an employee, the requirements of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 should be observed to guarantee the due process.
  • Concurrency with providers in the formation of operational policies will limit false impressions and differences. Understanding may include bank terms, delivery conditions, advertisement, and progression bolstering.
  • Management of hazards by avoiding them at all costs, especially with the view of potential legal problems. Undesired contacts should be limited and replaced by more favorable groups or associations whenever possible, or by addressing possible negative outcomes.
  • Several types of security measures or different fortifications should be introduced to assist in the hazard management. The organization should also implement a regularly renewed warning system for all hazards and their effects. The staff should know how to oversee different hazards when performing basic steps at any given time, rather than when the process is developed (Grance, Hash, and Stevens, 2015).

Specific Procedures for COMSEC Equipment

Just National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) – affirmed COMSEC items and administrations should be utilized to secure grouped data. Delicate data, as characterized in Reference (e), and data that has not been affirmed for open discharge prepared on DoD data frameworks should be secured by items approved by the National Institute of Standards and Technology as meeting the criteria of material Federal Information Processing Standards, or by NSA/CSS-endorsed COMSEC items and administrations (Grance 346).

DoD Components should receive COMSEC items and administrations through the NSA/CSS that fills in with the involvement of COMSEC procurement expert. If the items and administrations are inaccessible through the expert participation, the DOD components might secure them straightforwardly from business elements that are approved by the NSA/CSS to sell such items and administrations. Approved COMSEC necessities for all DOD data frameworks, including those basic to weapons frameworks and weapons emotionally supportive networks, might be tended to all through the framework life cycle (for instance, idea definition, plan and improvement, test and assessment, acquirement, establishment, operation, upkeep, and transfer).

Work printing and manufacture offices required to perform basic capacities should be identified with the arrangement of COMSEC material. It is necessary to control the CUP, a pivoting pool of COMSEC gear, which might be sold or credited to clients having a critical prerequisite for COMSEC assurance that was not planned or modified per Reference (m). It is equally important to recommend security guidelines for the execution of COMSEC COR obligations by DoD Components and report to the National Office of Record to regulate DoD Component CORs.


Anand, V., Saniie, J., & Oruklu, E. (2012). Security Policy Management Process within Six Sigma Framework. Journal of Information Security, 03(01), 49-58.

Grance, T., Hash, J., & Stevens, M. (2015). Security considerations in the information system development life cycle.

Henry, K. (2007). Secure Development Life Cycle. Information Security Management Handbook, Sixth Edition, 2449-2456.

Howard, P. (2014). The Security Policy Life Cycle. Information Security Management Handbook, Sixth Edition, Volume 4, 377-388.