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History of Musical Theatre

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History of Musical Theatre

Musical theatre is characterized by combination of songs, dance, acting and spoken dialogue. This takes an integration of a story and the emotional content through musical representation in form of love, anger, humor communicated in music and words for the purpose of entertainment. It has a resemblance with theatrical forms like dance and opera but its major distinguishing factor is with its importance to music when compared with the movement and dialogue elements. Musicals are presented in large venues and performed all over the world. Musical theatre has gradually transformed through history while remaining relevant to society.

The history of Musical theatre can be traced back from the antecedents through theatre of ancient Greece (McLamore 14). This was during the fifth century where dance and music were included in stage tragedies and comedies. Notable artistes include Sophocles and Aeschylus who composed their own music and choreographed the plays that accompanied the performance. McLamore (16) agrees that in the third century, Plautus used dance and song routines with orchestrations in Roman comedies. Songs and slapstick comedies were a major highlight of theatres in Europe during the middle ages. Religious dramas were used in the 12th and 13th century and this helped society on understanding religion and its importance.

During the renaissance of Europe, older forms of stories were improvised from commedia dell’arte into opera buffa characterized by the Italians. In England, music and instruments played a role in the Jacobean and Elizabethan plays (Mclamore 18). Singing, dancing and acting in expensive costumes was utilized in particular complex stage designs. Famous artistes, poets and literary artisans included William Shakespeare and Ben Jonson. Ballad operas and comic operas were the two popular musical theatres in Britain. Tunes of songs that were popular and stories with romantic plot lines that included lyrics were used in the musical theatres. This gave the society a new approach in expressing emotions.

Development of musical comedy between 1850s and 1880s had a great impact on musical theatres development (McLamore (14). The significant form of comic musical theatre was called the operette. The famous composers were Jacques Offenbach and John Straus III. They combined witty satire with fertile melodies. Around mid-19th century, music hall was common in England. This was adaptations of the operettas by the French. The first premier of English theatre piece in America was called The Black Crook in 1866. various comedians participated in musical broadways as emergence of modern musicals was established.

Maslon (9) states that African Americans were involved in Broadway’s running performances in 1898. a major hallmark of the New York’s production was the short length in the runs. Meanwhile in London there was a shift in style of the musicals. This was a change to the intellectual, absurdist satire, political and Savoy-style operas of comedy into family­-friendly,  modern-dress musical theatre style that employed popular songs, romantic banter and snappy style. The musical comedies set stage and tone for the generations that proceeded. Various artists took time to produce slightly more complex comedy hits accompanied with lyrics and musical theatre performances.

At the time of world war one, operettas were commonly used in musical theatres across Europe and America. Operettas in German language had lost its popularity at the time of the war in countries that spoke English (McLamore 15). During the musical theatre performances, comical relief was drawn from the characterization and situations depicted when performing. Flowing melodies helped the characterization and accompaniment of the artistry. The society needed sometime to escape from the effects and moods of the world war, and musical theatre provided for solace and an escape from all that. The changing social background in America created a more direct style and less hidebound society over the Europeans’ work.

According to Kenrick (11), in the 1920s, musical theatre saw a change in the emphasis of musical theatre appropriateness. Popular songs, big dance routines and emphasis on the stars of performers came at the expense of the plays plot. Musical lyricists and composers dominated the popular music. The standards set on the musicals and productions were popular in both Europe and America. Broadway featured elaborate costumes, extravagant sets and chorus girls who were beautiful. Operettas by now had lost popularity. A skillful Oscar Hammerstein II combined lyrics of Kern and wrote numerous acclaimed shows (McLmore 22). Integration of song, production numbers and humor was appreciated with the social themes that they carried along.

The great depression had affected audiences in theatre all over the world. The light-hearted style of song and dance was carried through to the 1930s. Famous writers still stuck to sentimental musicals and old-fashioned themes of the artwork. Babes in Arms was the first musical of Broadway to use drama in classical dance. Subsequent creative teams began utilizing innovations with topical books, musical satire and operatic scope. Political influence began finding its way into the musicals through incorporation with music and lyrics. Artists who managed to use political satire in the then United States Presidents include Richard Rodgers and Larry Hart.

The golden ages of 1940 to 1960 witnessed the artistic changes in musical theatre. Artists like Hammerstein and Rodgers successfully integrated musical theatre aspects like cohesive plot, use of dream ballet and several other dances, songs that enhanced the story action and development of characters rather than relying on dances alone. Other artistes created vital plays with rich social thought that gave encouragement to gifted writes in creating personal music plays. The society learnt on family values, the essence of love, the role of a woman as a wife and homemaker and the ultimate lesson of success.

In 1950s and 1960s, The Three penny Opera showed that musicals could be more profitable in small-scale  or small format of orchestra off-Broadway (Maslon 36). Choreographers and directors had had a major influence in the 19th century on style of musical theatre. During this period of golden age, large corporations and companies started to hire for their employs, talent who could write corporate musicals for private shows. The longest running musical, The Fantastiks  was produced in the 1960s. this period also saw the birth of rock music being used in the musicals and divergence from narrow confines. Several controversies were also marked, race relations, nudity and use of hair.

More genres of music and their incorporations into musicals were witnessed in the 1970s. real-life stories were characteristic of the musical sessions with variations from individual performances. Musicals that had variations from usual substance and styles were welcomed in Broadway. This period witnessed musicals with bigger budgets and depended on sweeping scores, spectacular effects and dramatic stories. I980s had European influence through mega-musicals or as they were referred to, pop operas. Major poets and musicals producer included the likes of Stephen Sondheim. They were characterized by larger casts and sets, big budgets, notable effects such as chandeliers and landing helicopters on stage. Most musicals were based on works of literature and novels.

1990s saw the emergence of theatrical composers of a new generation such as Jason Robert Brown and Michael John LaChiusa. Many theatergoers at the time faced escalating prices to attend the musicals. However, it was noted that a younger audience had been greatly influenced and included younger casts among its members of performers. Larger corporations were also incorporated into musicals production. A great example of this was the Walt Disney Company that adapted some of its animation films onto the stage of musicals. During this period of 1980 and 1990, musicals of smaller-scale stature managed to get financial and critical success despite the challenge posed by the large-scale musicals (Maslon 82). The society responded to the musicals in a more positive manner as all-round society issues were addressed besides being entertained .

From the year 2000 to the present, diversification has been witnessed in the theatrical musicals. Familiarity has been clinched as investments made by the investors and producers are being sought to gain healthy profits. The subsequent re-use of film plots have been critically described as more of a tourist attraction than a source of creative outlet. Nowadays it is hard for a sole producer to back a specific production on his own. This is because of the enormous budget and expenses that production costs. In order to stage musicals, several alliances are formed due to the huge investment required. Regional theatres in hand with off-Broadway produce lesser expensive and smaller musicals. Development of these has shifted from the main hubs of London and New York into smaller venues. This is also characterized by a shift in setting, in that the stage is set and takes place within and around the audience itself.

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited:

Kenrick, John. Musical Theatre: A History. New York: Continuum, 2008. Print.

Maslon, Laurence . Broadway: The American Musical. New York: Bulfinch Press, 2010. Print.

McLamore, Alyson. Musical Theater: An Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

 

Nutrition

Nutrition

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Nutrition

The hypermedia project will focus on nutrition. The project sees to empower the children with relevant aspects of nutrition. Firstly, it provides them with basic knowledge of nutrients such as carbohydrates and proteins. Information relating to their benefits is also listed. It is important to note that the content provided has been simplified, to meet their cognitive needs. Information on water and exercise is also posted. By adopting this approach, the hypermedia seeks to provide the children with an interactive learning experience. This will improve their knowledge base on the subject.

According to UNICEF (2000), children learn best through experiences. To meet this need, the hypermedia will implement various learning experiences. First, the hypermedia project implements many graphics. These have been chosen on the basis of relevance and their vibrant colors. Their relevance will ensure that the children gain knowledge that relates to the topics of discussion. By using vibrant colors in the hypermedia, the children will be attracted to the learning process. This is important in maintaining their attention during learning.

Secondly, audio is used in the project. Audio is important for giving spellings for complex terms. Similarly, it provides a practical approach for learning terms. For instance, the children may learn through songs. By adopting audio, the learning experience may also be enhanced since the children will not be distracted. Since the hypermedia will focus on nutrition, some foods can be used for practical learning. For instance, the children may be allowed to have a piece of fruit. This experience will sharpen their memory of what they have learnt, as they will be able to relate the food and the lesson (Curriculum Media Group, 2004).

To maintain relevance to students, hypermedia needs to define its audience. In the case of the nutrition project, the prerequisite ages for the children are between 6 and 10. This age has been adopted since the project best meets their learning needs. There are other prerequisites for the project’s success with the children. Firstly, they should be conversant with the fundamentals of computer technology. This will ensure that they can operate the hypermedia independently. Secondly, they should be able to identify different types of foods. Similarly, they need basic knowledge of food groups. For instance, they need skills in the basic identification of food groups, such as the terms proteins and vitamins. This will ensure that the children are able to classify them into various food groups. Finally, they should be able to use the internet. This will ensure that they can successfully use the additional resources provided in the hypermedia (Saab & Kalnins, 2010).

The hypermedia takes the considerations of the syllabus, while providing knowledge to the children. It combines the various stages of nutritional education, to best match the needs of the audience. Firstly, it covers stage one need such as balanced eating habits, and food groups. In stage two, the hypermedia focuses on eating choices, and how the nutrients affect our bodies. For instance, the project relates vitamins and immunity. Stage three needs such as food storage and energy needs are not covered in the hypermedia. They are considered as too advanced for the intended audience (State of New South Wales through the Department of Education and Communities, 2011).

The hypermedia project has a number of prerequisites for its successful implementation. Firstly, the project needs a computer with relatively fast hardware.  This will ensure that the program runs without performance glitches, which may harm the children’s learning experience. Secondly, the classroom provided should meet a number of requirements. The classroom should be large enough to accommodate the children and equipment comfortably.  The classroom should also have curtains to ensure that the display is not interrupted by sunlight. Thirdly, a display solution needs to be provided for the activities. For instance, a projector or a large screen may be used. This will ensure that all the children can participate in the activities. Similarly, speakers need to be provided, for the project’s audio needs.

Experiences are an important part of children’s learning. This is attributable to their influence on the cognitive processes in children. First, the hypermedia will provide an optimal visual experience for the children. The colors chosen in the hypermedia are attractive to the children, and do not cause eyestrain. Similarly, attractive graphics and pictures have been included in the project. This will ensure that the children can maintain a visual memory of what they have learnt. Similarly, audio elements have been incorporated into the hypermedia. They will assist children in pronouncing difficult terms in nutrition. Questions have also been placed in the hypermedia. They will improve the cognition of the children, as they will be required to contemplate. Finally, additional resources for learning nutrition have been provided by the project. For instance, a game for learning food groups has been linked. This will improve the children’s understanding of nutrition, beyond the provided information. Similarly, this fun approach will cement that knowledge through practice (Curriculum Media Group, 2004).

Assessment is an important component of learning. For the children, it can be carried out through questions. A quiz may be given after the project, to reflect on what they learnt. Similarly, questions have been posted at the end of the hypermedia. The questions should focus on several aspects. Identification of food groups is the first aspect. Secondly, the children should be able to identify with the benefits of different food groups. Finally, the children should be able to identify what constitutes healthy living (Curriculum Media Group, 2004). In grading success, all children should meet at least 50% of the total score. This will highlight their familiarity with nutrition. Remedial sessions may be held with underperforming children. The hypermedia project has been developed such that, it is easily configurable for other needs. Therefore, the children from other levels can adapt it to their standard of learning. For instance, the resources on nutrients can be expanded for their needs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

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Curriculum Media Group. (2004). Nutrition. Princeton, NJ: Curriculum Media Group.

Saab, J., & Kalnins, D. (2010). Better food for kids: Your essential guide to nutrition for all children from age 2 to 10. Toronto: R. Rose.

State of New South Wales through the Department of Education and Communities (2011). The place of nutrition education in the curriculum. Retrieved from http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/primary/pdhpe/phc/nut003.htm

UNICEF (2000). UNICEF – Teachers Talking. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/teachers/learner/exp.htm

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Concept Map

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fun Resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Starbucks Corporation

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Starbucks Corporation

  1. Economic Trends

Inflation refers to the increase of product prices and the converse fall of purchasing power of money. Starbucks has been affected by this phenomenon. There has been an increased inflation rate in commodity prices such as coffee. Consequently, the company has been forced to raise its prices, since maintaining the same margins has been difficult. Similarly, inflation of living costs has made some customers reduce their consumption of Starbucks’ products, as they are considered luxury commodities. Since the global crisis of 2008-09, many key markets have experienced recession. Similarly, companies have reduced their costs by trimming down their staff numbers. Consequently, the unemployment rates have grown in several markets. This has seen consumption of Starbucks products fall. Starbucks Corp. is a net importer of raw materials in countries such as the UK, Canada and Japan. Dynamic money market conditions have often affected the company’s bottom line, resulting to losses. The high fuel prices, consumer debt levels and the slow housing market may also make consumers reduce their spending on Starbucks’ products.

  1. Technological Trends

Technology offers companies an opportunity to reduce their operational costs, as well as improve their products and services. Starbucks has implemented various technologies in its manufacturing. For instance, it reduces waste through efficient processes adapted from the biofuels industry. Similarly, it has developed the Starbucks Digital Network, which provides a better experience to consumers of its products. The technologies implemented may be considered mature, as they have been available and proven for a while now. The company may also consider new technologies in coffee making, such as the ‘brew-in-a-bag’ concept.

  1. Political and Legal Issues

Starbucks imports its coffee beans from various regions around the world. Political stability in such countries is, therefore, important to the company. Similarly, the relationship between such countries and the United States is important. Legal-political issues such as labor disputes may affect the relationship between Starbucks and its suppliers. Similarly, the occurrence of war may disrupt supplies to the company. All these situations may adversely affect the corporation’s business activities. The establishment of export quotas for coffee producers and other restrictions may affect coffee prices, as seen from the past. Legal matters such as import laws may also affect the company’s business. For instance, additional tariffs and complexities may affect the company’s margins.

  1. Social and Cultural Trends

A new coffee culture has emerged around the world. This has seen the Starbucks’ sales volumes grow, as the culture has gained a widespread audience. The culture is related to consumption of premium products such as Starbucks coffee, and other specialist offerings. The culture is related to consumers between the ages of 18 and 49. These demographics are equally split between the genders. Consumers of this culture, give themselves a sense of identity, from what they drink. A shift from such behavior may affect the market demand (D’Costa 1).

 

 

  1. Environmental Issues

In recent times, there has been a trend towards environmentally friendly business practices. Starbucks has also participated in this trend. For instance, it reduced the size of its paper napkins, and garbage bags, in 2004. This resulted in a waste reduction of 816.5 metric tons (Linton, Liou and Shaw 230). The company has also used other strategies in maintaining environmentally friendly business. Firstly, it uses coffee cups that are sourced from recycled materials. Alongside that, the company offers consumers with discounts for bringing their own cups. Starbucks Corp has also participated in the Fair Trade movement. It is the largest North American buyer of the Certified Fair Trade Coffee. This amounts to around 10% of the global product market. Starbucks has promoted fairness and equality towards its stakeholders. For instance, it has invested some of its profits towards its employees and growers (Starbucks Corp. 20).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

D’Costa, K. “The Culture of Coffee Drinkers | Anthropology in Practice, Scientific American Blog Network.” Scientific American Blog Network. N.p., 2011. Web. 1 Oct. 2013.

Linton, April, Cindy C. Liou, and Kelly A. Shaw. “A Taste of Trade Justice: Marketing Global Social Responsibility Via Fair Trade Coffee.” Globalizations. 1.2 (2004): 223-246. Print.

Starbucks Corp. Striking a Balance: Corporate Social Responsibility. 1st ed. N.p., 2004. Web. 1 Oct. 2013.

 

Conceptual Framework

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Conceptual Framework

Development of Fiber Optic Technologies began in the early 20th century. Consequently, it has gained widespread implementation by parties in various sectors. Fiber Optic technology offers an efficient medium for the transmission of media from one point to another. This phenomenon has enabled it to gain wider implementation, as opposed to copper cables, in the 21st Century. This technology has a number of advantages over the traditional copper cabling solutions. It offers faster speeds in data transmission, through its expansive bandwidth. Similarly, it offers an efficient medium as it is not exposed to attenuation from electric and magnetic waves. Finally, its deployment is easier, due to the medium’s reduced heft. Many business and research activities involve transfer of vast volumes of data. In contemporary activities, sharing of outcomes is fundamental aspect, necessary for success. Consequently, an effective transmission medium is required. Fiber Optics may be implemented due to their advantages over copper-based media. Through the research, the benefits of implementing fiber optic networks over copper-based solutions are shown. Various metrics are used to highlight this.

The effectiveness of communications depends on the tools used. Consequently, the use of better transmission media is of importance. To understand the actual effectiveness of each media, a number of tests will be carried out. Firstly, the evaluation of losses per transmission distance will be carried out on each transmission media. Secondly, the bandwidth of transmission media will be determined. It is important to understand the components of transmission media, Co-axial cables consist of a copper core that is shielded by an air gap. This assists in reducing attenuation (Awan 20). The cable consists of an outer and inner part. The outer part reduces interference, while, the inner part carries the data signal. Coaxial cables have a number of advantages. They can be used near metallic items without significant signal loss. These cables are also cheaper to acquire and operate. To check continuity in coaxial cables, a multimeter may be used. This measure ensures that quantitative data can be transmitted at the required time. Various aspects are measured by the equipment. For instance, the attenuation, noise and delays need to be determined through the tests. The resistance, crosstalk, and mutual capacitance may also be determined. These measures are necessary, as quantitative analysis requires minimal data losses (Awan 25).

Fiber-optic cables consist of hollow fiberglass that is made from silica. The silica glass is used as a small pipe, in the transmission of light rays. The light serves as the data signal (Alwayn n.a). This technology has a number of advantages. For instance, it can be used for long-distance transmission of data. Similarly, it has little loss of data. Finally, it has high bandwidth capacity, and faster transmission speeds. To determine the effectiveness of such media, tests need to be carried out. Attenuation in fiber optics is caused by inefficiencies in manufacturing. For instance, the crystallization of glass from a melt may be carried out inappropriately, resulting into bends. Similarly, impurities such as Hydrogen may be added to the manufacturing process, resulting into imperfections. Optical fiber media may lose data through various mechanisms. Firstly, it may be due to absorption by the reflective material. This effect may be categorized as intrinsic or extrinsic. Data loss may also be a result of scattering. Here, a wave loses energy due to interaction with another particle. The scattering may be linear or non-linear Alwayn n.a).

Bends may also be a source of data loss in fiber optic media. Large bends (macrobending) cause power losses in the transmission wave. Conversely, bends in the core-cladding interface (microbending) may cause losses of around 1db/km (DeCusatis 7 DeCusatis n.a). The attenuation can be determined through calculation of the power output and power input. The total attenuation is the sum of all losses through the media. This variable is expressed in decibels per kilometer. The difference highlights the level of attenuation in the medium. The Bit rate of a medium is related to its bandwidth. To determine the extent of attenuation, this measure needs to be determined. To carry out the measurements, a power detector needs to be used (Fiber Optic Test Equipment and Testing Fiber Optic Links n.a).

From the measurements, it is expected that the fiber optic media will show less interference from external factors, and the effects of attenuation. The copper media are expected to show higher rates of interference from metallic objects, electrical and magnetic fields found in the environment. Similarly, tests on the copper media are expected to report lower bandwidth and speed, as compared to the fiber optics. Coaxial cables of the RG-11 standard are expected to offer a peak performance of 1.5 G/bits, at a bandwidth of around 3 GHz. Conversely, a single mode fiber optic cable can offer data rates of 10Gbps, at a bandwidth of 20 GHz (DeCusatis & DeCusatis n.a). Consequently, the advantages of fiber optic media are proven. From the findings, the data should be transmitted over larger distances, and at higher capacities.

Many operations involve the transfer of large volumes of information around a network. These operations are usually mission-critical. Various safeguards and considerations need to be placed during the implementation of fiber-optic communications. For instance, an efficient network design should be developed. Similarly, a number of losses are to be expected in the implementation of fiber optics. Firstly, a loss of around 0.3db is expected. This may rise to 0.75db if polished connectors are used with the media. A 0.3db loss is also expected for each slice. Fibers of different sources also experience various losses. For instance, 850nm sources have a loss of around 3db/km from the tests. Similarly, the tests should show that 1300nm sources have a signal loss of around 1db/km. Despite these losses, fiber optic media still provide greater efficiency in data transmission operations. Larger volumes of data can be transferred over larger distances, with fewer data integrity issues through use of this transmission media (Optical Fiber Training and Tutorials n.a).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Alwayn, Vivek. “Optical-Cable Construction > Fiber-Optic Technologies.” Cisco Press: Source for Cisco Technology, CCNA, CCNP, CCIE Self-Study. N.p., 2004. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.

Awan, Shakil. Coaxial Electrical Circuits for Interference-Free Measurements. Stevenage: Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2011. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.

DeCusatis, Casimer, and Carolyn J. S. DeCusatis. Fiber Optic Essentials. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press, 2006. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.

Fiber Optic Test Equipment and Testing Fiber Optic Links. Kent, Wash: Light Brigade, 2004.

Optical Fiber Training and Tutorials. “Optical Fiber Loss and Attenuation | Fiber Optic Training & Tutorials – FAQ, Tips & News.” Fiber Optic Cable Supplier, Distributor – Fiber Optics For Sale Co. N.p., 2010. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.

 

Discussion

Discussion

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Discussion

  1. Article

The author has used the article to bring forward a number of thoughts. Firstly, she intends to show that feminism is a fundamental aspect of the Latina liberation struggle. Secondly, the author seeks to show that feminist ideology is not a foreign concept to the Latina peoples. Alongside that, she presents some ideals of Chicana feminism, which have been in existence from the past. Thirdly, the author seeks to highlight the current societal views that have been at conflict with Latina feminism and its theology. Finally, the author intends to explain the fundamentals of Latina feminist theology, such as its methodological characteristics.

Various instances of evidence are utilized in supporting the author’s views. Firstly, the author shows that feminist ideology has always been ingrained in the Latina peoples, and is not foreign. She states that Latina feminist tradition differs from the monocultural character of the Euro-American feminism. She relates Latina feminism to the Black theology, which disputes the idea that feminism is a tenet of the White society. The author also mentions the work of Cotera. For instance, she states that research has shown that cultural patterns and traditions indicate a long history of Latina feminism. She goes on to mention that there is little influence, imposition or orientation of Chicano feminism, from the European form. Similarly, she mentions the 1976 critique of NietoGomez on the ‘influence’ of European norms in Chicano feminism.

To highlight the role of Latina feminist theology in liberation, the author relates it to the teachings of the church of Medellin, and concepts of Chicana feminism. She mentions aspects such as elimination of oppression and exploitation in her relation between the Medellin and the feminist theology. From the information provided, it is seen that there is a consistent relationship between the two subjects. Similarly, she portrays the Latina feminist theology as a silent struggle against the aforementioned injustices. The author acknowledges the understandings of Chicana feminism in the aforementioned theology. According to the author, Latina Feminist theology has promoted elimination of injustices such as inequality. To dispute the alleged European and American influences, she mentions matters such as capitalism and the neoliberal economy. She mentions various factors such as technology. Similarly, she explains how they have heightened socioeconomic inequality in the world. The author highlights several methodological characteristics of the Chicano Feminist theology. Firstly, she mentions the underlying historical concepts of the personal and communal realities that we are. Secondly, she explains divine revelation as the key principle of knowledge necessary for justice and liberation.

  1. Opinion

The article may be termed as convincing. This may be attributable to a number of reasons. Firstly, the author maintains a clear outlook of the Latina Feminist theology. For instance, she relates it to the development of a sociopolitical movement, and the concepts of liberation. Similarly, she differentiates it from the European and American feminist ideals. Secondly, she maintains religious influence on the Latina theology. For instance, she highlights how the teachings of Medellin fit into the Latina feminist ideals. To show contrast, she explains the contemporary global outlook and its misgivings. For instance, the inequality that emerges in economic and developmental contexts such as effects of the capitalist neoliberal globalization. The author extends her discussion to the field of theology, where she shows how the non-white Latinas such as mestizas have had limited access to knowledge. Consequently, she is able to explain the theological ideals of equality and justice.

 

 

  1. Discussion Questions

Various questions may be used in generating further discussion on the topic. Firstly, the conflictive relation between capitalism and Latina Feminist theology may be explored further. Questions may be asked, concerning what the differences are, and how they have influenced the grassroots Latina population. Secondly, the influence of religious teachings on Latina feminism may be discussed. Both Roman Catholic and Protestant views may be incorporated into the discussion. Finally, the means through which Latina Feminist theology may solve the current grassroots problems may be queried and discussed.

Literary Devices

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Literary Devices

  1. The Lottery

The Lottery is a story by Shirley Jackson that was published in 1948. It tells of a lottery that is run by Mr. Summers and the resulting events. In the text, numerous instances of literary devices are observed. The lottery presents several instances of symbolism. The first is the black box. “…the black box now resting on the stool had been put into use even before Old Man Warner, the oldest man in town, was born…The black box grew shabbier each year: by now it was no longer completely black but splintered badly along one side to show the original wood color, and in some places faded or stained (Jackson 230).” In this case, it represents old traditions that have been outpaced by contemporary life in the village. This is seen through the expression of wear and tear on the box. The stoning also represents another outdated tradition. In this case, the author is successful in the use of symbolism.

The title of the story presents an allegory, relating to common village life. For instance, its rules correspond to how life in the village is. In the events, Mr. Summers breaks down participation by the residents according to their households. In a village, households are the first units of social interactions. In this case, Jackson effectively uses allegory to highlight village life, thus improving the setting of her story. The lottery also features extensive use of irony. The title evokes thought of something positive is about to happen. However, the story takes the opposite direction, and ends up with a violent ending where Tessie Hutchinson is stoned by the villagers. Through this instance, Jackson is able to develop the theme of scapegoating in the story. Jackson has provided her characters with symbolic names. For instance, Mrs. Delacroix’s name means cross in French. Similarly, the author maintains several allusions to Christianity. However, she uses them to highlight irony. For instance, Mrs. Delacroix selects the largest stone that can be hurled at Hutchinson. In the story, “Mrs.Delacroix selected a stone so large she had to pick it up with both hands and turned to Mrs.Dunbar (Jackson 240).”

  1. Yellow Wallpaper

Yellow Wallpaper is a story by Charlotte Perkins Gilman that was published in 1892 in The New England Magazine. It centers on a narrator and her husband during their stay in a beautiful estate, during the summer. Through the text, Gilman attempts to bring forward her views on feminism and individuality. In the story, Gilman uses imagery to develop its setting, with great success. For instance, she describes the location of the estate as “beautiful…quite alone, standing well back from the road, quite three miles from the village (Gilman, 159).” This serves as a representation of isolation, through the creation of mental pictures in the reader’s mind. Through this instance, it is also seen that Gilman has used foreshadowing in the story. The distant location of the house from the village foreshadows the isolation and despair that will be experienced by the narrator during her stay.

The author has used first person point of view. For instance, the narrator states, “I get unreasonably angry with John sometimes. I’m sure I never used to be so sensitive. I think it is due to this nervous condition (Gilman 160).” Similarly, the first person point of view shows the narrator is experiencing an increased state of mental illness. Consequently, Gilman succeeds in developing a deeper portrayal of the narrator’s conflict. This results in better connection with the readers of the story. The wallpaper serves as a symbol in the story. Its pattern represents the societal norms that metaphorically guide our actions. By being confined to staying in the room, the narrator shows the patterns as the manifestation of social restrictions, such as those imposed on her by her husband and brother. By focusing on the wallpaper and its patterns, the narrator represents it as an intellectual challenge. This is attributable to her husband and brothers disapproval of her engagement in other intellectual activities, such as reading and writing. Through such representations, Gilman is able to advance her feminist themes in the story.

  1. Rose for Emily

Rose for Emily is a short story by William Faulkner. The plot focuses on the life and funeral of Emily Grierson. It seeks to answer the townspeople’s questions about the mysterious life of the deceased woman. Faulkner tells the story of Emily through a third person point of view. For instance, he writes, “On a tarnished gilt easel before the fireplace stood a crayon portrait of Miss Emily’s father (Faulkner 59).” Through this literary device, the author is able to avoid the filters that result from Emily’s personality. Consequently, the readers are able to deduce information that was not known to her. For instance, the detail of her funeral and other activities after her death can be known to the reader.

Foreshadowing has also been used by Faulkner. A number of actions may provide insights on how the story ends. In the story, Emily takes a number of questionable actions. For instance, she goes to the town and tells her druggist, “I want some poison (Faulkner 65)”. Similarly, Homer Barron goes into her home. However, he is not seen since that occasion yet nobody questions whether he left or not. After a while, the town complains of the smell emanating from Emily’s house. However, lime is placed around the house thus eliminating it. When these instances are placed in meaningful order, they set the stage for the realization of a dead body in Emily’s house. However, Faulkner places bits and pieces of the events in the plot. He manipulates time in the story, such that the plot takes place over several decades, stretching from Emily’s youth to her death. The story begins with her funeral, and shifts to her distant past. This results in a cryptic foreshadowing of an end that surprises the readers. Through this literary device, Faulkner is able to weave out a complex setting that advances the plot of the story.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Chase, Thomas, Ken Mitchell, and Michael L. Trussler. The Wascana Anthology of Short Fiction. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center, 1999. Print.

 

The Progressives and Civil Liberties

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The Progressives and Civil Liberties

Progressivism is a political philosophy, which is targeted at improving the conditions of citizens through improvements in government. In the United States, progressivism was seen in the years between 1890 and after the First World War. American leaders such as Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt took progressivism seriously, and there was subsequent social change in the nation. However, they did not pursue the cause of civil liberties.

In the election of 1912, it is arguable that all three candidates were progressives, despite their party philosophies (Pestritto & Atto 241). Following Wilson’s victory, the reasons for the failure of progressivism can be seen. Firstly, it is important to note the background of the then progressive leaders. President Wilson was a southerner that was raised in Virginia. Consequently, his brand of progressivism was influenced by southern ideals. In his presidency, he supported segregation in race relations. Similarly, he oversaw the removal of minority groups such as Blacks and Hispanics from the civil service. President Wilson also publicly denounced the idea of female suffrage (Brinkley 593). However, he succumbed to public pressure in that respect. The progressive membership consisted of the middle-class population (Brinkley 559). Their key concern was labor issues such as safety and working conditions. They were hostile to the black population and did not see benefit in pursuance of civil rights (Kersch 246). During the 1910s, a new wave of radical labor protests began taking place. The Government saw labor protests as menaces to the society and it consequently intruded on the right to dissent. The violent activities that took place alienated the middle class. Consequently, the progressive movement retracted its support for the labor protests, and did not speak out against the federal government’s intrusion of civil liberties.

From historical knowledge, it is seen that the progressive movement was riddled with hypocrisy. This is attributable to the different power groups that supported the ideals. The progressive movement viewed women as more moral than men (Eisenach 173). However, women were denied suffrage by President Wilson prior to the 19th constitutional amendment. The progressive movement was mainly supported by the middle class population. Due to its membership, its objectives in labor reform were unclear. The middle-class population sought to reestablish its political decision-making power. Consequently, the progressives supported actions such as racial segregation and restrictions on immigrations (Brinkley 575).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation, Volume 2. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.

Eisenach, Eldon J. The Social and Political Thought of American Progressivism. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub, 2006. Print.

Kersch, Kenneth Ira. Constructing civil liberties. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.

Pestritto, Ronald J and William J Atto. American progressivism. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008. Print.

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Career Profile Samsung Company 2

Career Profile Samsung Company 2

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Career Profile Samsung Company 2

Introduction

This paper seeks to reflect on the organizational and leader profiles of my career. Firstly, it covers the organization that I desire to work for following completion of my course. The paper includes extensive research and analysis of the organization, for the purposes of identifying whether I would fit or not. Secondly, the paper includes a reflection on the organizational leader whose ways I seek to learn. By analyzing the leader’s highlights and pitfalls, I can identify better ways of improving my career path.

Organizational Profile

The best companies usually provide their employees with opportunities in improving their skills and developing their knowledge. Similarly, they offer their staffs a proper balance between home and work. Consequently, their employees are more productive, and happier at what they do. The Samsung Group is the company that I believe suits my needs. From many studies, the company has been described as a desirable organization to work in. Samsung is a conglomerate of various companies that are involved in fields that are varied from consumer electronics to heavy industrial processes. Currently, it is the largest consumer electronics company by revenue size.

An organization’s mission reflects what it seeks to do in its operations. Similarly, its vision highlights its development agenda regarding its stakeholders. Consequently, these two statements hold a great bearing on the organization’s regard for employee development. Samsung’s mission statement highlights the company’s desire to devote its talent and technology in the development of better services and products, which contribute to a better global society (The Samsung Group, 2013, 1). The company also holds a number of values. These are; people, excellence, change, integrity and co-prosperity. The value of ‘people’ states that the company is dedicated to providing its staff with a wealth of opportunities to reach their full potential. This highlights the importance of staff development in the organization’s goals. Success in Samsung’s business goals rests on the performance of its staff (The Samsung Group, 2013, 1). This appreciation for staff is what makes me believe that my career will blossom at Samsung.

A company’s leadership style is an important factor to consider, before seeking employment there. I seek to work for a company that allows smooth communications between leaders and employees, such as Samsung. Organisations with a good leadership style enable the free flow of ideas between staff. For instance, an employee can easily mingle with an executive during random interactions. At Samsung, leaders usually participate in the daily tasks, and do not leave employees to perform all the tasks. This creates an environment that enables innovation in organizational processes (Holstein, 2002, 89). For instance, leaders will be able to collect feedback on processes during interactions with their staff. I desire to work in organisations that have value for employee input. In the case of Samsung, such innovations led to development of products such as the wildly popular Galaxy smartphone series. Similarly, Samsung executives seek good working relationships with their staff. They use the selling style in their leadership. Consequently, employees are able to learn new things from them (Choudhury, 2012, 1).

Samsung is characterized by a vertical reporting structure. Employees are required to report to their supervisors, who report to other executives. Korean culture is characterized by hierarchy in business activities. Consequently, staffs are required to respect the organization’s hierarchical code of conduct in activities such as communication. Similarly, Korean culture takes age very seriously (Kwon, 2008, 43). While interacting with company staff, a researcher discovered that Korean culture involves personal questions such as age and marital status (Choudhury, 2012, 1). In the company, age and experience are related to seniority in the company. However, the company has taken great strides in its quest to make its culture habitable for Westerners. It has adopted various operational strategies from organisations in the United States, in its business model (Holstein, 2002, 89). Samsung’s corporate culture is one that promotes innovation in employees. For instance, employees are encouraged to share their ideas during projects. This matches my desire to work in an environment that encourages innovation.

A majority of Samsung’s employees reside in Seoul, South Korea. Around 95,000 of the organization’s 200,000 worldwide employees perform their duties within facilities spread around the city (Choudhury, 2012, 1). Consequently, working at Samsung may involve relocation to the Asian nation. Samsung usually flies job candidates to Korea. This enables prospective staff to get a feel of what working in the nation is. Similarly, the company pays for all staff relocation costs from their home countries (Kwon, 2008, 77). This provides employees with an easier time for adapting to the company’s geographical location. The company also employs people from all the regions of the world. Therefore, settling may not be a problem to me thus making the opportunity more attractive. Furthermore, I seek to travel and meet new people in my career. Samsung is therefore a good fit for me. The Samsung Group does not only hire scientists. It has a large number of MBA graduates working in its business units. In South Korea, there are over 600 employees holding the qualification. This highlights the graduate opportunity that exists in the company. Due to its vast nature, the company presents great opportunity in working there.

Following analysis of the company, I believe that I have a high level of organizational fit. Firstly, I desire to participate in something big during my career. A company such as Samsung may provide me with such an opportunity. For instance, I may be able to participate in the operations of its successful smartphone and TV product lines. Secondly, Samsung’s company culture provides freedom and other benefits (Mitchell, 2010, 55). I believe that this will be important for my quest to discover how I may achieve personal development in areas such as innovation. I have desired challenges in my career path. This will enable me to develop my organizational skills further, hence improving my productivity in various situations. Samsung is a company with relatively challenging objectives. By working there, I believe that I will have an opportunity to sharpen my skills. For instance, I will be able to contribute to challenges related to the development of exciting products such as the Galaxy smartwatch.

However, Samsung is characterized by some issues. For instance, its vertical reporting structure may be difficult to work in. Similarly, the company may present me with difficulties in work/life balance. Samsung employees typically work for long hours, unlike in the United States (Choudhury, 2012, 1). However, I believe that the pros of working for the company exceed the disadvantages. The company’s values agree to what I believe in, hard work and great products. By working in a conglomerate that is as broad as Samsung, I believe that I will be able to learn new things. Similarly, I will have greater opportunities in the efforts of advancing my career.

Leader Profile

In various industries, there are leaders who have enabled their organisations to dominate their respective fields. In my career, I seek to emulate leaders who have built great companies based on innovation. Following research, I felt that Jeff Bezos presented the best example of a leader in my context. Bezos was born in 1964 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Following his graduation from Princeton, with a computer science degree, he was employed in Wall Street. There, he observed a 2,300% increase in annual internet use around the country (Academy of Achievement, 2013, 1). He consequently set his sights on a business that could ride on that trend. In his case, he identified the sale of books. He founded Amazon Inc as an online retailer. Since then, the company has expanded its product line to about all consumer goods that can be sold.

In his career as a business leader, Bezos has made a number of accomplishments. In 1999, he was named as Time Magazine’s man of the year, due to his contributions to the e-commerce industry. Similarly, he was named as 2012’s businessperson of the year by Fortune magazine. This is attributable to his success in leading new ventures that feature high-risk. However, his career has also had its low-points. During the dot-com crash at the millennium, Amazon’s value was nearly wiped out in the process.

Jeff Bezos is considered as one of the most influential business leaders in the world. Forbes ranked him at position 40 in the 2011 edition of the World’s Most Powerful People list (John, 2013, 1). Bezos is considered successful and influential in his role as CEO due to a number of factors. The most obvious is the financial prosperity that the company has gained. By the year 2009, the company’s market value had already grown by over 5000% since its IPO in 1997. In 2012 alone, the company’s share price went up by 30%. In the process, he has also made himself a billionaire and enriched his shareholders (Academy of Achievement, 2013, 1).

Bezos has had a positive impact in many industries that he has entered. He revolutionized the book market through introduction of Amazon’s popular kindle reader. In the process, Amazon captured 95% of the United States e-book market (Landau, 2013, 93). Bezos has also contributed to the retail industry. By creating a successful e-commerce website, he provided consumers with easy access to products, which has spurred an online shopping trend. Similarly, he allowed individuals to access a wide market for their products through the Amazon platform. Bezos has also had an impact on the cloud infrastructure industry. Amazon’s Web Services division is a market leader in the field, serving organisations as important as NASA and the CIA.

Bezos is a leader with arguably good business acumen. During most of his tenure as CEO of Amazon, he has overseen projects that carry high risk. The company has consistently grown its revenues hence providing its shareholders with value. Bezos is unique in his leadership style. Firstly, he created the two-pizza rule. If a team cannot be fed with two pizzas, then it is too large for a successful project (John, 2013, 1). He has advocated for smaller teams, which increases the chances of innovation in processes and products. Similarly, Bezos has encouraged experimentation by the company. This has resulted into great products such as Amazon Prime and one-day shipping (Landau, 2013, 121). Finally, Bezos has instilled a focus on consumers within Amazon. This is seen through his advocating for consumer feedback, through his public e-mail: jeff@amazon.com (John, 2013, 1).

Through profiling Jeff Bezos, I have picked up some information on how I should plan my career. The profile has encouraged me to be on the lookout for new trends and opportunities in business. For instance, I should be on the lookout for areas that may be of potential for the firm I work at. This will improve the advancement prospects in my desire to be a business leader. Alternatively, I may have to found a startup once an appropriate opportunity is identified. The profile has encouraged me to focus on innovation. Through Bezos’ experience, innovation has enabled his company to be the top online retailer. I have learnt that I need to make disciplined observations in my career. This will allow me to understand how business processes work, their inadequacies and how I can innovate.

I have also learnt that I need to develop my intuition. This may be beneficial during the development of critical business decisions that may have an impact on my career advancement. Jeff Bezos maintained a special focus on customers in his leadership. I need develop my understanding of how customers relate to business operations. Consequently, I will be able to tailor my leadership skills towards them. An understanding of customer needs would be of great benefit to my career. For instance, such knowledge would enable me to lead product development teams. To achieve that objective, I may invest in a seminar relating to customer needs (Ohlsson & Borg, 2010, 86). Consequently, I will be able to develop my skills independently. Similarly, I will spend more time in interacting with customers, something that I desire in my career. Through this approach, I would also be able to develop my communications skills further. Finally, the profiling has enabled me to place a primary focus on value creation in my career. I will strive to align my duties with the long-term goals of the organisations that I will work in. This approach will allow me to grow the organisations’ respective businesses, hence improving my prospects of advancement (Arenofsky, 2001, 61).

Conclusion

Through performing profiles of an organization and a business leader, I have been able to develop a greater understanding of my career path. The Samsung Group presents the best fit for my skills and attributes. By analyzing the company’s profile, I have been able to understand what skills I need to polish before joining them. Similarly, Jeff Bezos’ profile presents the characteristics that I need to emulate in my career. By adopting the identified needs, I will be able to improve my skills and suitability as the business leader I desire to be.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Academy of Achievement. 2013. Jeff Bezos Biography — Academy of Achievement. [online] Available at: http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/bez0bio-1 [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

Arenofsky, J. 2001. Creating Your Career Path. Career World, 30 (1), p. 6. [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

Choudhury, S. 2012. Inside View: Samsung. [online] Available at: http://www.businessbecause.com/news/inside-view-top-jobs/1250/inside-view-samsung [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

Holstein, W. 2002. Samsung’s golden touch. Fortune, 145 (7), p. 89. [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

John, J. 2013. Leadership Lessons from Jeff Bezos | MBA@UNC. [online] Available at: http://onlinemba.unc.edu/mba-at-unc-blog/leadership-lessons-from-jeff-bezos/ [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

Kwon, O. 2008. International business in Korea. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Landau, J. 2013. Jeff Bezos and Amazon. New York: Rosen Pub.

Michell, T. 2010. Samsung Electronics and the struggle for leadership of the electronics industry. Singapore: Wiley.

Ohlsson, H. and Borg, H. 2010. Career development. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

The Samsung Group. 2013. Our Values and Philosophy: Mobile Phones: Monitors: Samsung.com. [online] Available at: http://www.samsung.com/africa_en/aboutsamsung/corporateprofile/valuesphilosophy.html [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION OF SURVEY

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION OF SURVEY

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Recommendations

The study of organizational theory and behavior are a fundamental part of an organization. It determines the success of any organization in a particular industry. At DCH Lexus, the survey carried out was a great insight towards the employees’ views of the company. Following analysis, various concerns were raised, by a substantial number of employees. It is necessary for further research on those issues to be carried out. Consequently, various recommendations offered need to be carried out. This report serves to identify the various recommendations offered. However, only the most substantial issues are covered.

In question three, 20% of the respondents claimed to lack the opportunity to do what they feel best at, everyday. This implies that a large percentage of the workforce at DCH Lexus is not productive. It is recommended that the management should restructure the organization to ensure that all skill sets are productive. This will ensure optimal productivity in the future. Forty four percent of respondents either disagreed or strongly disagreed that they have received recognition for good work. It is recommended that the management should offer incentives for good performance (Ventrice, 2009). For instance, it may create an employee of the week award, accompanied by some benefits.

A fifth of respondents disagreed that their development is encouraged at work. The management should focus its efforts on enhancing the employees’ abilities. For instance, training workshops may be held regularly. Thirty three percent of respondents claimed that the organization had little regard for their opinions. To this effect, the organization should implement new channels for receiving employee input. For instance, some issues may be delegated to the employees for discussion. From the survey, it was discovered that 40% of employees lacked a best friend at work. It is recommended that the company should encourage more interaction between employees. Strategies may be borrowed from Starbucks in this respect. This will allow the company to harness the benefits of synergy.

From the survey, 40% of employees did not discuss their progress with the management. Alongside that, 24% of them claimed that they lacked opportunities to grow. This implies that the company offers limited growth potential for them, in the future. Kramer and Amabile (2011) recommend that the management should maintain steady discourse on progress in the company. Benefits should be issued out to outstanding workers. Twenty eight percent of respondents felt that their positions in the company were insecure. The management should show the workers that the company’s position in the market is safe. This could be done by holding an event that celebrates the company’s achievements and appreciates the employees for that.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

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Amabile, T., & Kramer, S. (2011). The progress principle: Using small wins to ignite joy, engagement, and creativity at work. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business Review Press.

Ventrice, C. (2009). Make their day! Employee recognition that works : proven ways to boost morale, productivity, and profits. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

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Conclusion

From the company, it is seen that most of the company’s employees are familiar with their duties at work. However, a minority of the employees feel that the resources allocated to them are inadequate for their respective jobs. This shows that the organization has provided the necessary tools for workers to be productive. The minority may be informed of the 80/20 rule. From the survey, a majority claimed that they had an opportunity to do their best everyday. The survey proves that employees at DCH are highly productive. However, a significant minority claims otherwise. The company’s management can emulate Google’s strategies. For instance, it may allow its employees to carry out tasks of their own choice, which are beneficial to the company on regular intervals (Girard, 2009).

From the survey, it is seen that the employees are offered little interaction with the management. For instance, they do not receive recognition for good work done. Similarly, the employees’ opinions are hardly requested for use by the management. Alongside the offered recommendations, management should establish solid and transparent communications channels in the company. Starbucks provides a good example of how such communications channels may be deployed in DCH Lexus. The company features schedules containing important issues that employees are asked to participate in decision-making (Crossan, 2005).

From the survey, a majority of employees were certain of their importance at DCH Lexus. However, nearly half of the population was either unsure or certain that their job did not place any importance on them. Girard (2009) states that Google is a company that has a reputation for making its employees feel important. Strategies like Google’s workplace design may be carried out. From the survey data, it is shown that a significant population of the workers feels that their jobs offer little or no advancement for them in the future. For instance, around a quarter of the surveyed population claimed that they had little growth opportunities. Similarly, a majority of the employees had not discussed progress with their superiors. In this case, the management techniques from Starbucks should be followed. Communication in DCH Lexus is of great relevance to its success.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Crossan, M. M. (2005). Strategic management: A casebook. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Girard, B. (2009). The Google way: How one company is revolutionizing management as we know it. San Francisco: No Starch Press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Questions

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Questions

  1. United States federal law provides protection of children from predators, child pornography and prohibits the transfer of pornographic material to minors. It is enabled through the Sexual Predator Act of 1998. Section 203 of the legislation establishes a zero-tolerance outlook on instances of possession of child pornography. As a result, ISPs are required to limit hosting of such content on their servers. Where necessary, they are required to report such instances to the authorities. Some states provide confidentiality and immunity from prosecution for workers at ISPs who report such cases. Computer technicians, at ISPs, therefore, have a role to play in the fight against child pornography. On the discovery of such content at an ISP, a computer technician has several steps to carry out (O’Donnell & Milner, 2007).

First, a computer technician should take preventive action against child pornography traders. The technician may block viewing of such websites and newsgroups. This is possible through new network configurations, which prevent viewing of such sites by prospective users. In this manner, one ensures that the ISP prevents the spread of child pornography. Secondly, a computer technician should gather maximum information about the instance in question. For instance, the posting dates, URLs and other essential metadata need noting down.

Thirdly, a computer technician should report the incident in question to the appropriate authorities. One may report to federal institutions such as the FBI. Such law-enforcement agencies usually have teams dedicated to tracking down and arresting perpetrators. After reporting an incident of child pornography, one should determine whether the incident meets the legal specifications of child pornography. This is done by studying the material in question, with reference to online resources such as the Department of Justice website (The United States Department of Justice, n.d). Finally, one should take measures to exonerate the ISP they work for from legal responsibilities.

  1. In this case, the investigator needs to identify the browser used during the incident. This will help to determine the next course of action. To determine whether the story in question is true, first, browser history requires checking. To determine whether the user in question actually clicked on a pop-up window, the investigations should begin with typed URLs. If ambiguous URLs receive identification, log files on the web server in question need tracing. Servers store log files that indicate IP addresses of computers that are connected to them. The ISP in question should provide subscriber information for the allocated IP address and times of access (Vacca, 2005). Similarly, the IP address, date and time of access need confirmation through the log files. This will prove to the investigator whether the pop-up connected the computer in question to the web server.

Secondly, if the downloaded files are still present, a code analysis needs implementation. To find the files, the download locations need identification. First, the default download locations need immediate checking. Web browser and system caches also need checking for downloaded content, as data may be temporarily stored there. Finally, non-default locations need checking. This may be the case if the user specified a custom download location for the files, in the web browser settings. When found, the files need comparison with the estimated time of the incident, and the expected filenames. The code analysis will allow the forensics experts to determine whether the code included pop-up functionality for the webpage in question. It will also determine whether the pop-up in question required user interaction or not. Furthermore, the code analysis will enable the investigators to determine the servers linked to the pop-ups. Finally, investigators should use a virtual machine to confirm whether the suspect’s claims of website functionality were true (Vacca, 2005).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

O’Donnell, I., & Milner, C. (2007). Child pornography: Crime, computers and society. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing.

The United States Department of Justice (n.d.). USDOJ: CRM: Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section. Retrieved June 10, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/criminal/ceos/subjectareas/childporn.html

Vacca, J. R. (2005). Computer forensics: Computer crime scene investigation. Hingham, Mass: Charles River Media.