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Value Creation through Diversification

 

Value Creation through Diversification

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Value Creation through Diversification

Andreou, P. C., Louca, C., & Petrou, A. P. (2016). Organizational learning and corporate diversification performance. Journal of Business Research, 69(9), 3270-3284.

The article presents an investigation on the role played by organizational learning on corporate diversification. The study findings show that organizational diversification lowers shareholders’ value. However, diversification performance relies on recurrent and incremental experiences relating to the organization’s earlier diversification activity and its capability to operate in multiple-business segments.This supports the absorptive capacity theory of organizational learning.The writers reveal that single-businesses that diversify once show significant value reduction.On the other hand, multi-businesses thatdiversifyonly once do not show significant value reduction, and single or multiple-businesses that diversify many times show value creation.

The study evaluates a theoretical model that is based on the absorptive capacity perspective to reveal the effects of organizational learning to the impact of organizational diversification.Also, the authors have a sound knowledge in management and economics from Cyprus University of Technology and Durham University.This makes it a reliable article in handling the topic at hand. However, the research focuses more on single and multiple businesses, which makes it limited in the nature of its application. This research will be insightful in supporting the role played by organizational learning towards creating value in an organization. Learning gives a firm leverage towards diversification, which enables it to create value.

 

Cretu, R. F. (2012). Corporate governance and corporate diversification strategies. Revista de Management Comparat International, 13(4), 621.

The article highlights the role of managers in corporate diversification. The author notes that managers who double as shareholders are most likely to make decisions that can add value to other shareholders. He adds that ideal governance ensures that a firm reduces risks and allows for freedom. Good governance ensures integrity, transparency, and responsibility.Cretu goes on to show the link between corporate governance and diversification. He notes that the efficiency of the diversification strategies is dependent on corporate governance. Good managers can create value via diversification through synergic integration. Diversified organizations tend to have more managers because they have a role to play in creating value for the firm.

The article is based on literature review from various authors. Its scope is on the role played by organizational managers in creating value to an organization and their role in ensuring that diversification strategies achieve the desired objectives. It is a reliable source since the author obtains information from various sources through literature review. Additionally, the writer has vast knowledge in business studies, which makes the article a credible source. However, the resource has some limitations, especially since it focuses on corporate governance only. It is a fact that diversification of a firm may be influenced by other factors apart from management. This source will be critical in supporting the position that managers have a critical role to play in creating value to stakeholders via diversification of operations in a firm.

 

 

Rhéaume, L., & Bhabra, H. S. (2008). Value creation in information-based industries through convergence: A study of US mergers and acquisitions between 1993 and 2005. Information & Management, 45(5), 304-311.

The authors investigate the effects of mergers and acquisitions on value creation in the telecommunications’ industry. They use data on mergers and acquisition that took place between 1993 and 2005.The results reveal that the acquiring firms reached their targets within a very short period, and that acquisition strategies led to synergetic gains. However, organizations that dreaded high operating risks caused by mergers and acquisitions and pursued other diversification strategies did not record any significant change in shareholder value.

The authors focus on data obtained from the Securities Data Corporation Worldwide Mergers and Acquisitions database, which makes the article reliable. Furthermore, its reliability is enhanced by the experience of the authors. The writers are university professors from the University of Quebec, Canada and John Molson School of Business at Concordia University, Canada. However, the research is limited since the data used is from 1993 to 2005, which is too old to be relevant in the modern business environment. The article is significant is supporting the role played by mergers and acquisitions in creating valuethrough diversification.

Zhang, P. (2014). Understanding diversification strategy in venture capital market. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 4(3), 277-296.

The article presents a study that was done to determine theeffect of diversification and specialization strategies on capital venture firms. The research shows that the nature of diversification influences a firm’s performance in the capital venture market. Specifically, related diversification is linked to improved organizational performance, and venture capitalists tend to prefer it than unrelated diversification.

In the study, the author uses the Pratt’s guide. The guide provides a database used to study the venture capital market. In the research, Zhang chooses three States for his analysis: New York, Massachusetts, and California. This makes the research limited in terms of scope. The sample of three states in insufficient to come up with substantial conclusions. Additionally, the study focuses on one industry. Therefore, it is possible that the other industries are not faced with similar circumstances, making the conclusions insufficient. However, the reliance on Pratt’s guide makes the source credible. In addition, the author is credited as a renowned author in economics. The article will be insightful in supporting the idea that the nature of diversification may influence the outcomes of diversification.It will help in highlighting the different forms of diversification and when they can be applied.

 

 

Family Labor and the Growth of the Northern Colonies

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Family Labor and the Growth of the Northern Colonies

The northern colonies started to experience expansion in the industrial and agricultural sector due to the cheaply available labor the slaves provided. The rich subjected the low-income families to cheap labor with the returns apparently inadequate to take care of the laborers’ needs. The majority of workers were of African origin whose entire household was assigned a particular duty. The women, for instance, served I farms while men served in the industries that were developing at a fast rate. The children, on the other hand, helped their parents with farm work, more so in handling small duties. The authors of Who Built America? have the suggestion that individuals ought to be free from all forms of oppression that may violate their rights. Clark et al. (131) inform that the individualistic freedom served a critical purpose in building the Southern colonies regarding the economy and democratic rights. A society based on family labor differs from a community based on democracy in the sense that in a democratic setup people has the freedom to advocate for higher payment while in a family labor the freedom is absent.

The description by the authors of Who Built America? that even though the northern colonies may not appear as a democratic society in the modern times, they were more democratic that any community in the 18th century is true. The argument is a real description of the northern American communities that opposed the use of slaves. The northerners claimed that every person deserves equal treatment regardless of their ethical background and even initiated legislative processes to free the blacks in bondage in the southern states. The call from the northerners played a significant role in freeing the captives in the south.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Clark, Christopher, Hewitt Nancy, Rosenzweig Roy, and Lichtenstein Nelson. Who Built America? Bedford: St. Martins, 2007.

 

Business Communication

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Business Communication

Bill Murphy,

Customer Service Representative,

The Video Store,

1 Corporate Drive,

Los Angeles, CA 90000.

May 30, 2017

 

Frank Capra,

Supervisor,

The Video Store,

1 Corporate Drive,

Los Angeles, CA 90000.

 

Dear Sir,

RE: Replacement of Missing DVD for Customer and Adjustment of Return Policy

I received a mail from a loyal customer complaining about a missing DVD order under the reference Missing DVD Order #1234ABC. Mr. Clark Gable is the customer who claims to have received an incomplete order and delivery of DVDs on November 12th of the last year. In his letter, Mr. Gable details that he had made an order for It Happened One Night and Goodfellas on DVD on November 5th which were delivered on November 12th to his registered address. However, Mr. Gable was buying the It Happened One Night DVD as a Christmas present for his sister-in-law, and as such it was not opened until after Christmas at which point he discovered it to be empty. In line with the company policy, all problems ought to be reported within thirty days of the purchase which would not have been possible in Mr. Gable’s situation. Therefore, he is requesting that the company replaces the DVD and ships it to his address without any additional purchasing or shipping costs seeing as he believes the error was on our side.

I think, considering the special circumstances surrounding the customer’s reporting, we should recompense him for his trouble and embarrassment during the holidays. I believe that Mr. Gable is a valuable customer whose records indicate that he buys products on a regular basis. Therefore, I would suggest that we replace his missing DVD and cater for the shipping cost as a sign of goodwill. In the event we cannot bear the entire cost, we can offer him the DVD for which he would pay shipping but additionally provide him with a discount on his next purchase as compensation for the trouble.

Furthermore, I believe that despite his reporting of the problem being late, the company ought to offer relief to our customers especially during the holiday season as most of our clients buy gifts for their friends and family and only realize the faults after the holidays. Additionally, if we give our customers better deals and return policy during the holidays, we will be able to keep satisfied and loyal customers for the coming year. I look forward to a favorable response.

Regards,

Bill Murphy

 

Bill Murphy,

Customer Service Representative,

The Video Store,

1 Corporate Drive,

Los Angeles, CA 90000.

May 30, 2017

 

Clark Gable,

400 Ross Drive,

Ames, IA 50010.

 

Dear Sir,

RE: Apologies and Replacement of Missing DVD.

First, I would like to thank you for your continued loyalty and trust in our service. On behalf of The Video Store, I would like to extend my sincerest apologies for any trouble, embarrassment, and inconvenience as a result of the error from our side causing the mix-up in delivery.

I understand how frustrating it can be to order and pay for something missing, especially if it is a gift to a loved one. Moreover, I would like to say that here at The Video Store we pride ourselves on being able to offer the most efficient services to all our customers, and I believe you are a witness to that from the many years we have sold DVDs to you. I would like to point out that the problem occurred at our distributor’s warehouse as a result of the holiday rush, but we promise it will be the last time anything like that happens.

Therefore, we will deliver the It Happened One Night DVD to you in the next four business days at your registered address at no extra shipping cost. As a way to repay your loyalty, we are offering a 5% discount for this month’s purchase. Moreover, we would like to inform you that following the mix-up, the company has seen fit to increase the return policy period to forty-five days during the period from November 1st to December 31st to enhance our services, especially during the gift period.

I would like to thank you for bringing the issue to our attention as we are always looking for ways to better our services and your experience. Again, we apologize for any inconvenience caused to you and your family.

Should you need help in the future, please do not hesitate to contact me directly, and I will be happy to assist you.

Regards,

Bill Murphy

billmurphy@thevideostore.com

 

Internal Memo

To: All Staff Members, The Video Store

From: Bill Murphy, Store Manager

Date: May 30, 2017

Subject: Adjust to Company Return Policy During the Holidays

I would like to bring to your attention the recently approved changes to the company’s return policy during the holidays. It has been discovered that the company is losing some of its clients during the holidays as a result of the unfavorable return policy. While customers are expected to report any problems with their deliveries within thirty days of purchase, issues may arise when a product is a Christmas gift. Therefore, the management has seen fit to make some adjustment to the return policy as a way of ensuring the store is serving in the best interest of the customers.

The return policy has been adjusted for the period from November 1st to December 31st annually to include an extended return period. Therefore, for any purchase made between the dates mentioned above, the customers can report issues and request returns for up to forty-five days. It SHOULD BE NOTED that the policy does not affect the rest of the year whose return period remains thirty days. The policy adjustment will allow the customers ample time to review their products in the event they are gifts and in the case of fault claim a replacement. I will email the adjusted Return Policy to all staff members by the end of the business week.

 

Peasants’ Life during the Han Dynasty

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Peasants’ Life during the Han Dynasty

China underwent through the leadership of several dynasties before transforming into the modern society. The Han dynasty served as the second imperial rule in China that served from 206BC-220AD after the Qin dynasty that functioned from 221-206BC (Hansen, 31). The Chinese consider the Han dynasty to be the golden age when many citizens acquired insight on many things. Besides the economic prosperity that was evident during the period, the society fell into different social classes with the rich leading a better life than the peasants. The farmers inhabited rural settings and worked hard to get food and other requirements.

Life was enjoyable for the rich who occupied large houses that were full of decorations but that were not the case with many peasants who struggled to achieve what they want. Wang (157) writes that the peasants who lived in the city faced a hard life because they lived in poorly maintained houses and sometimes went without food for several days. The farmers in the rural settings led a relatively better life despite the fact that they had no right to own land. The administration, for instance, ensured that every family household gets food and shelter. Furthermore, emperor Gaozu (Liu Bang) relieved peasants in the rural areas from paying taxes which eased the burden for the lowly placed.

The women and children also served important roles in the development of the dynasty. The women, for example, performed most of the house chores while their husbands worked to earn some income. The women served as caregivers during sickness, and also took care of the children. The children on their part helped their parents to perform some of the simple house chores such as washing utensils and cleaning the house.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Hansen, Valerie. The Open Empire: A History of China to 1600. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2000.

Wang, Yu-Ch’uan (1949). “An Outline of the Central Government of the Former Han Dynasty.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 134-187.

Permaculture and Sustainable Food Systems in Urban Areas

 

Permaculture and Sustainable Food Systems in Urban Areas

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Permaculture and Sustainable Food Systems in Urban Areas

Permaculture in Urban Areas

Permaculture is a scientific and artistic method of designing and constructing human settlement that meets the basic needs of any given community. The form of design and construction ensures that it creates a sustainable environment that offers the particular community healthy food, clean water, energy, adequate shelter, and a sense of community. Moreover, permaculture offers a design option that actively regenerates the depleting biodiversity and natural resources with an artistic twist especially in urban areas where the image is very crucial. Hence, the primary goal of permaculture is to create a society that fosters sustainability while at the same time offering healthy habitat that facilitates co-existence of all living form in the ecosystem. Therefore, most urban areas across the globe are paying particular importance to permaculture especially in designs to ensure that they offer a long-term abundance of healthy life for all.

Permaculture began in the 1970s in Australia and spread to other parts of the world including Canada where cities like Alberta, Quebec, and Ontario have embraced it as a way of achieving sustainability especially as most people now live in urban areas (The Urban Farmer, 2015). In some of the cities in Canada, people have undergone permaculture training aimed at creating new communities or improving those they live in as a way of gaining sustainability. For instance, one of the most notable community and advocators of permaculture in London, Ontario is the Spirit of the Earth, the Living Centre & Living Arts Institute which was founded in 1983 and incorporates the spiritual and ecological education to influence the people (Kelly, 2017). The center is devoted to educating and creating herbs and vegetable gardens, orchards, edible medicine trails, and forest gardens in different locations of Ontario as an initiative of creating a sustainable and healthy community. Moreover, across the globe majority of the cities use the same criteria to create communities that seek to restore the glory of nature diminished by human settlement and development. According to recent studies more than half of the world population will be living in urban areas by the year 2050 which makes it paramount to design and build towns and cities that will create conducive living environments for all (McCarthy, 2017). Permaculture is especially critical for urban areas for they tend to require a lot of resources like food, water, energy, and other natural resources to operate at optimum. Therefore, unless the world crafts and creates communities and cities that can regenerate the resources at the rate they are utilized there will be much competition for limited resources and as such the need for permaculture.

Permaculture is very beneficial in urban areas and should be incorporated in all city plans across the globe as a way of creating and maintaining sustainable city life that does not alter the ecosystem dramatically. In the same way, urban areas drain energy, they are also in a position to create self-sustaining systems that conserves all forms of resources preventing their depletion. Hence, implementation of permaculture designs allows for the actualization of principles that facilitate the production of energy, recycling of resources and expanding a city’s capacity to sustain its population. Implementation of permaculture designs in the towns would ensure that the cities built provide for means to generate and recycle the resources needed; thereby reducing the strain put on rural areas and natural resources (McCarthy, 2017). The strain relief on rural resources ensures that the ecosystems such as forests and water catchment areas recover and are restored from their presently degraded form. The restoration and recovery would further guarantee the capacity of the global ecosystems’ capability to sustain all living things and reducing the scramble for the limited and depleting resources offered by nature.

Moreover, another benefit of permaculture is the use of natural energy sources and other natural processes to run the day-to-day activities in the city. Urban areas tend to be hotter than the surrounding outskirts because of the overall lack of trees and vegetation that leads to the retention of the solar heat. Therefore, it causes the hot days to be scorching while the cold ones are colder than usual which in turn; demands more energy for cooling and heating systems which consume more energy. The Living Center has intensified its actions to increase the vegetation cover and number of trees in the urban areas in attempts to cool the air and reduce the solar heat retention (Kelly, 2017). The move reduces or enables retention of heat during hot and cold weather respectively while at the same time lessen the amount of energy consumed by city residents. Moreover, communities in the urban areas have embraced permaculture by decreasing the number of pollutant fuels and power sources and substituting them with clean energy like the use of solar panels in their homes (The Urban Farmer, 2015). The use of solar panels and cultivation of edible forest and vegetation is a major step in ensuring that the ecosystem is preserved and its ability to accommodate the growing population is upheld which improves the quality of life that people live.

However, just like permaculture has benefits, its implementation, especially in urban areas, is faced with challenges that inhibit its success. For instance, of the greatest challenges is the unavailability of the necessary information to rehabilitate the urban areas into permaculture appropriate environment. The lack of necessary information has been credited with the creation of communities that do not meet the required standards thus failing to solve the issue. Additionally, poverty levels are relatively high in urban areas, and as such, it is financially challenging to implement some of the permaculture designs as they require resources and commitment to be successful. Therefore, the people may be committed to having a better life but lack the financial means to implement the designs that will offer a long-term abundance of healthy living.

Therefore, permaculture is very crucial especially in urban areas as it gives immeasurable benefits to both the rural and urban residents. It plays a major role in ensuring that cities erect systems and designs that guarantee relief for natural resources. Some of the benefits of permaculture are the restoration of degraded natural resources like forest and catchment areas as well as recycling and regeneration of energy in the urban areas. Despite the challenges, permaculture has proven it is an efficient manner to ensure that the ecosystems of the world are protected and allowed time to recover in order to sustain the healthy habitats for all living things.

Ideal Sustainable Food System

A food system is the path that food takes from the farm to the plate and includes all the activities that occur between planting to the consumption of the aid food. The food system also includes the economics of food production, food security and sustainability, the degree of the food wasted, and the effects of food production on the natural environment. Food systems are influenced by economic, social, political, and environmental context that dictate the sustainability of the food supply in any given community. In rural areas, the food systems are much simpler than in urban areas as they do not produce their food. Hence, for a city to have an ideal food system, they have to actively rely on some conventional and alternative food systems. Edmonton which is the capital of Alberta Province in Canada has adopted a strategy that is geared at creating a perfect food system for the city and its residents.

A sustainable food system is one that delivers food and nutrition security for all by incorporating economic, social and environmental factors to ensure that the food security of future generations is not compromised or jeopardized. In any food system, the primary role is to make sure that regardless of the amount of food produced in any given area, the residents and future generations will have a way of accessing food. For instance, in Alberta, much food is grown as the province is the leading exporter of agricultural products in Canada which means that Edmonton and other cities in Alberta do not suffer the risk of food insecurity. The food costs in Edmonton are relatively low as compared to most cities in the world which make it an ideal food system from a glance (Lipton, 2010). However, all matters considered, an ideal food system incorporates all aspects of food production, aftermath, and effects on the environment among others. The seemingly ideal food system fails to take into account the health effects of having cheap food like obesity and environmental factors like soil erosion and pollution which could jeopardize the food security in the long run (Key, 2017). Therefore, to ensure that the food system is ideal, a project called ‘fresh: Edmonton’s food & urban agriculture strategy’ was designed to warrant that Edmonton has a sustainable and ideal food system that would weather all challenges (The Food and Urban Agriculture Advisory Committee, 2012). One of the most prominent ideas was to enact an integrated planning approach that brings together and improves all the systems involved in ensuring food security. The integrated plan would only be achieved by sourcing all the activities from local sources and people in Edmonton. The ideal system would be achieved by sourcing food from locally owned businesses in the city, create urban farms in local areas where the majority of the jobs are located as well as concentrate the food sector as close to home as possible. Most of the food available in Edmonton is sourced from producers in and around the city and people can get their food from community organized food markets, grocery stores, restaurants, food trucks and other fresh food organization from the outskirts of the city.

The food production in Edmonton city is divided into categories depending on the location of the food production method. For instance in the food can be produced in rooftop, community, and backyard gardens, orchards as well as edible landscaping in the parks. Food processing in Edmonton is either in a commercial or community scale through kitchens that transform the raw material into market-ready or value-added products. The food is transported and distributed either to retail or wholesale stores and stowed dry, cold or frozen depending on its durability. Food consumption in Edmonton involves raw food purchased from stores to be prepared at home or from food establishments like restaurants (The Food and Urban Agriculture Advisory Committee, 2012). Moreover, the government has put up waste disposal systems that ensure proper treatment and disposal of food waste without polluting the soil or other means of food production.

The food system in Edmonton has been created to be ideal through a series of strategies implemented by the government to safeguard the food security in the city. Food is produced in urban gardens and public edible landscaping within the city and its outskirts. Additionally, it is distributed, stored, consumed, and disposed of in a series of systems that guaranteed sustainability for the future generations especially by avoiding pollution.

 

References

Kelly, M. (2017). The Living Centre: Permaculture in Canada. Retrieved from The Living Centre: http://www.thelivingcentre.com/cms/the-living-centre-permaculture-in-canada

Key, K. (2017, February 14). Envision an Ecologically Sound, Socially Just Food System for Alberta. Retrieved from Alberta Food Matters: http://www.foodsecurityalberta.org/

Lipton, B. (2010). Food Security for Edmonton: Is it really something we should care about? Edmonton: Becky Lipton Research & Consulting Ltd.

McCarthy, R. (2017, February 8). Why Our Urban Areas Need Permaculture: The Problem is the Solution! Retrieved from Permaculture Research Institute: https://permaculturenews.org/2017/02/08/urban-areas-need-permaculture-problem-solution/

The Food and Urban Agriculture Advisory Committee. (2012). Fresh: Edmonton’s food & urban agriculture strategy’. Edmonton: The Food and Urban Agriculture Advisory Committee.

The Urban Farmer. (2015). Permaculture in Canada. Retrieved from Food Matters Manitoba: http://www.foodmattersmanitoba.ca/sites/default/files/Permaculture%20in%20Canada.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

NISSAN MOTOR COMPANY

 

 

 

 

 

NISSAN MOTOR COMPANY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Nissan Motor Company

Background

Nissan Motor Company is an organization that deals with the manufacture, assembly, and sale of automotive cars for both commercial and personal use. It was established on December 26, 1933 by Yoshisuke Aikawa and has its headquarters in Nishi-ku, Yokohama, in Japan. The areas served in the world number over a hundred countries while its current Chief Executive Officer is Carlos Ghosn. The parent establishment of the company is the Nissan Group with its sales occurring under three different brands of Infiniti, Datsun, and Nissan[1]. The main markets are Japan, the U.S, Russia, and China. It has also undertaken a global partnership in its ranks during the year 1999 under Renault-Nissan after struggling to penetrate as a global automotive force. The company’s business type is that of retail trade while providing automotive parts and stores of accessories. The primary SIC codes are 5531 for the auto and home supply stores while the former of its automotive deliveries is under the NAICS code of 441310. In North America, the codes are 3714 for primary SIC code with its motor vehicle parts and accessories while 336930 is for the NAICS code under motor vehicle parts manufacturing.

Performance Analysis

Financial Analysis

Nissan’s financial revenues are sound by the indication of a 7.2% increase as from the year 2015. The numbers add to 12, 189,519 Japanese Yen from a total of 11,375,207 in the year 2014[2]. The profits realized in the process are 523,841 Japanese Yen in the year 2015 showing a 14.5% increase from the previous year with 457,574 Yen. The gross margin of sales and profit from the proceeds adds to 19.63 as of 2016 showing a steady increase over the years owing to its strategic positioning and operational management across board. It also ranks highly when compared to other global competitors like Honda, Hyundai, Tata, and even Daimler AG.

Investor Performance

Looking at the company’s profitability, the comparison to other competitors shows that Nissan is on track when meeting the investor demands as well as expectations. For example, the stock price index of the company is listed as 1,074 Japanese Yen while that of Honda and Hyundai are 28.20 US Dollars and 161500 KRX respectively[3]. The performance is indicative of the general strategic approach that has been used in the company to avail expectations based on pricing, outreach, sales, customer preference, as well as overall stock pricing for its performance. The market capitalization has also been witnessed to the tune of 4.54T showing a healthy basis of both internal and external management choices as per investor requirements.

Customer Performance

Using some of the customer reviews, Nissan has excelled in making sure that the needs as well as preferences have been met. There is an abundance of existing customer relations that has cut across all levels of correspondence and feedback. It has been transmitted in manufacture, sales of the automotives, availability of parts, as well as accessibility of services by the country in the main market regions. The reviews show that the company is concerned with the products’ welfare and performance levels exhibited by the customers at all times thus affecting the kind of services and operations that they receive[4]. The pricing is notably affordable as compared to the major competitors as well as range of selected automotive products.

Employee Performance

The general performance of the employee sector in the company has been relatively applauded by the reviews made available. Over the last decade, there has been minimal, if at all, any lawsuits made public by the employees on working conditions at the company’s premise. The company has managed to unionize the employees’ association as means of helping them fight for their welfare and benefits at all times[5]. The constant correspondence and relationship-building meetings exemplified in the annual gatherings has paid off dividends in terms of the settling and consensus of any issues that arise. Thus, Nissan has been marked as one of the best companies to work for in the 21st century.

Stakeholder Satisfaction

Limited information has been made available on the company’s environmental performance as it ranges from its headquarters to market destinations. Nonetheless, eco-friendly analysis has been made possible by the company’s use of renewable sources of raw materials as opposed to the traditional ones. They have been infused in the degradable components during manufacture, making the products and parts embrace the environmental awareness programs. It has also complied with the majority emission standards and regulation through articulation of its differentiated levels of combustion and outputs.

Performance Summary

The performances assessment of Nissan reveals that the organization is of a state basis when it comes to sustainability, corporate responsibility, and human resource management. From the executive basis of the management, the company has been an example of a commercially viable business that is aware of its developmental track record over a long period of sustained growth and expansion. However, the constant pressure from competitive rivalries in the industry always poses a threat to its market share both at domestic and international levels. The competitive advantages as indicated are growing smaller and smaller each financial period as the level playing field is made possible by newer entrants to the industry.

 

Bibliography

Jindal, Deepika, Chandan Jee, and Rajiv R. Thakur. “Nissan: go‐global strategy.” Business Strategy Series 12, no. 4 (2011): 195-201.

 

Nissan Motor Corporation. “NISSAN | For Investors.” Nissan Motor Company Global Website. Last modified 2017. http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/IR/.

 

Nissan Motor Corporation. “NISSAN Annual Reports 2016.” Nissan Motor Company Global Website. Last modified 2017. http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/IR/.

 

Roper, Zachary J., Joshua D. Cosman, and Shaun P. Vecera. “Perceptual load corresponds with factors known to influence visual search.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 39, no. 5 (2013): 1340-1351.

 

Toma, Sorin-George, and Paul Marinescu. “Global Strategy: The Case of Nissan Motor Company.” Procedia Economics and Finance 6 (2013): 418-423.

 

 

[1] Nissan Motor Corporation, “NISSAN | For Investors,” Nissan Motor Company Global Website. Last modified 2017. http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/IR/.

 

[2] N Nissan Motor Corporation, “NISSAN Annual Reports 2016,” Nissan Motor Company Global Website. Last modified 2017. http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/IR/.

[3] Sorin-George Toma, and Paul Marinescu, “Global Strategy: The Case of Nissan Motor Company,” Procedia Economics and Finance 6 (2013): 419.

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[4] Zachary J. Roper, Joshua D. Cosman, and Shaun P. Vecera, “Perceptual load corresponds with factors known to influence visual search,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 39, no. 5 (2013): 1343.

[5] Deepika Jindal, Chandan Jee, and Rajiv R. Thakur, “Nissan: go‐global strategy,” Business Strategy Series 12, no. 4 (2011): 196.

 

Population Explosion and Its Effects

 

Population Explosion and Its Effects

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Population Explosion and Its Effects

As the world’s population continues to surge, a pressure is being exerted on the available natural resources such as water, arable land, and other natural resources. Close to 99 % of food consumed across the globe comes from land, while less than 1% comes from the sea.  As the world population keeps on growing, such resources are over-utilized since their requirements also grow. Additionally, population explosion leads to environmental degradation. In densely populated regions, air and water pollution is a common phenomenon. Consequently, there are negative health outcomes caused by over population.  In many instances, the health facilities are strained such that they cannot offer efficient healthcare to the population (Dimick, 2014). Many people have limited access to healthcare.

Various reasons are attributed to the rapid population growth across the world. Currently, life expectancy has increased than in the past. This is associated with the improvements in nutrition and healthcare. As people live longer, they reach the reproductive age. Similarly, a United Nations report notes that many people are moving to safer and more developed regions, which makes them access better standards of living (Dimick, 2014). Consequently, they give birth to more children since they can access better healthcare and other necessities.

Technology is one of the major reasons associated with rapid population growth across the world. Advancements in technology have enabled healthcare practitioners to offer better services that ensure that the population is healthier. Nowadays, even barren people can raise children, thanks to technology. Also, technology has led to industrialization, which plays a role in creating jobs for people (Cantrell, 2011).The income earned from employment enables people to live a better life, therefore, increasing their life expectancy.

 

References

Cantrell, R. (2011). The technological influence on population growth trends. Retrieved from: http://rcantrell38.blogspot.co.ke/2011/12/technological-influence-on-population.html.

Dimick, D. (2014). As world’s population booms, will its resources be enough for us? Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/09/140920-population-11billion-demographics-anthropocene/

The McDonald’s Hot Coffee Case

 

The McDonald’s Hot Coffee Case

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The McDonald’s Hot Coffee Case

The McDonald’s hot coffee case is one of the most referenced tort law cases and is classified as among the most frivolous lawsuits in the US. Stella Liebeck bought a cup of coffee at a McDonald’s drive-thru in Albuquerque (Consumer Attorneys of California, 1995). Mrs. Liebeck, who was seated at the passenger’s seat, spilled the coffee as she tried to open the cup to add cream and sugar and as a result suffered third-degree burns on her lap. After recovering from the series of skin grafts, she sued McDonald’s for serving dangerously hot coffee to its customers and was awarded nearly $3 million dollars in punitive damages by the jury but was granted $640,000 by the judge (Consumer Attorneys of California, 1995). The tort litigation has protected the consumer’s rights that are often violated by various businesses.

Tort laws were employed in Mrs. Liebeck’s case as suffering was unfairly caused to her accompanied by loss of income as a result of burns from coffee that the company knew was very hot. It was also evidenced by the numerous complaints presented by other customers. The jury was upset by McDonald’s failure to correct the faulty policy that caused harm to its clients and found the company liable for committing the tortious act. Moreover, the company was found responsible as it did not offer a valid explanation for failing to inform the consumers that the coffee was too hot to drink and could cause severe burns.

Tort law is very relevant to businesses and consumers as it sets the guidelines that govern the society and prevents one party from exploiting another. For the consumers, it ensures that they are not unfairly treated by negligent corporations either directly from the products offered or their byproducts (Baime, 2014). On the other hand, it ensures that the reputation of a business is protected from slanderous consumers seeking to make money. Tort law mainly protects the aggrieved party by allowing the shift of the burden from the plaintiffs as in most cases they are recompensed by money, an apology, or both.

Therefore, the McDonald’s hot coffee case is an accurate representation of the efficacy of tort law as it offered Mrs. Liebeck the compensation she was seeking. It also created a platform that ensured that McDonald’s changed its policy to avoid causing harm to other consumers. Moreover, tort law is important as it protects consumers and businesses by providing guidelines of how people should coexist.

 

References

Baime, E. (2014). Fundamentals of tort law. Retrieved from: https://nationalparalegal.edu/FundamentalsTortLaw.aspx.

Consumer Attorneys of California (1995). The McDonald’s hot coffee case. Retrieved from: https://www.caoc.org/?pg=facts.

 

 

White Collar Crimes

 

White Collar Crimes

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White Collar Crimes

White collar crimes are typically non-violent crimes that individuals, especially in businesses and corporation, commit for financial gain. Most of the white collar crimes are associated with embezzlement, corporate and security fraud, and money laundering. White collar derives its name from the fact that most of the criminals are elite individuals and tend to hold high ranking positions. White collar crimes are different from other crimes in business as they are characterized by deceit, concealment, and gross violation of trust, unlike other crimes that involve the use of physical force and in extreme cases loss of life. Moreover, unlike other crimes, the motivation of white collar crimes is solely financial; either to amerce finances or to avoid losing money, services or property. Furthermore, other business crimes tend to be caused by malicious decisions and neglect of the code of conduct that in turn causes harm.

The focus on business ethics and mandatory ethics training to all business professionals are crucial in ensuring that the commission of crimes in a business environment is reduced if not eradicated. Ethics instill morals and guidelines of what are the right and wrong business practices in line with the current issues in the business world. Business ethics are the written and unwritten rules that are used either to stop people from committing crimes in a business environment or prosecute wrongdoers.

One of the most famous white collar crimes was perpetrated by Bernard Lawrence ‘Bernie’ Madoff who was an American financier that ran the greatest Ponzi scheme in history defrauding thousands of investors billions of dollars over a period of seventeen years. He deceived his investors that he would generate substantial returns for them but instead deposited all the monies into a single account from where he paid only those that wanted to cash out. He was sentenced to 150 years in jail 2009 and ordered to forfeit all the assets he accumulated during the entire period of the scheme.

 

One of the Video Choices

 

One of the Video Choices

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One of the Video Choices

Really Achieving Your Childhood Dreams commonly referred to as the Last Lecture was a lecture given by Randy Pausch, a computer science professor at Carnegie Mellon University. The lecture was an inspiring talk that Pausch gave his students after receiving a terminal diagnosis that left him with a maximum of six months of a healthy life (Carnegie Mellon University, 2007). The lecture received a lot of media coverage mainly due to the attitude the terminally ill professor maintained despite the fact that he had less than a year to live.

One of the most striking aspects of his lecture was that he recounted the events of his life with so much pride and contentment and narrated how he went on to fulfil his childhood dreams as well as help other people achieve theirs. From his lecture he addressed his cancer diagnosis and converted it into a life lesson where he said; “We can’t change it, and we just have to decide how we’re going to respond to that. We cannot change the cards we are dealt, just how we play the hand” (Carnegie Mellon University, 2007). Pausch tells his students that despite the fact that he has less than a year to live he did not let cancer define him, instead, he used the opportunity to spend more time with his family ensuring that they have better days ahead. What is more, he says that the cancer was recurring and that it had spread from his pancreas to the liver with at least ten tumors which lead to the fact that he had less than a year of healthy life. Moreover, he warns his students against pitying him as regardless of his diagnosis he was still healthy and more fit than most of them. This was an affirmation that despite having cancer, one could stay fit and healthy only if they choose not to give up due to their looming death.

Professor Pausch inspires his students by informing them of the power of positive thinking and not giving up. Despite his condition, he can derive pride in the fact that he achieved his childhood dreams and even helped other achieve the same. Therefore, he echoes the sentiments that cancer should not inhibit the students or anybody from achieving what they have purposed.

 

References

Carnegie Mellon University (2007). Randy Pausch Last Lecture: Achieving Your Childhood Dreams. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ji5_MqicxSo