Human should adopt Vegetarianism

Human should adopt Vegetarianism


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Human Should Adopt Vegetarianism


Dieting is one of the major issues that face people from all occupations and lifestyles. Despite the basic need of food as a source of vitality for life and existence, it plays a vital role in the form of nourishment sources that we input. It then accounts for the type of health status that we allow to manifest in our bodies. The choices that we make therefore affect the health conditions as well as possible ailments or illnesses consequently from any deficiency especially where the nutritive value is in question. Bordering on the two extremes, dieting has affected the food choices and sources that generate all nourishment when protein is of concern. The common approach has been a balanced diet that requires protein resources that are mainly sourced from animal variety. On the other hand, alternative feeding habits that do not partake of meat sources have been fronted as vegetarianism. The debate then surrounds choices on vegetarianism or non-vegetarianisms depending on the health benefits. All humans should adopt vegetarianism for better health outcomes.


The debate between adopting vegetarianism regime or not has been in the public domain for a long while. Studies and experiments on either side have raised concerns on the nutritive value that adopting the vegetarian routines provide the body with while also looking at the detrimental factors when the animal-proteins through met lack. In an augmented setting, lifestyle choices have been blamed on the poor health status of people around the world, with consequential deaths being witnessed from one region to another. An issue requires sobriety in addressing the need to adopt vegetarian regimes for all humans. The concern is especially when considering the health benefits and life quality in totality.


As indicated by the American Dietetic Association on Vegetarian eats less, the danger of death from coronary illness is altogether lower in vegetarian enthusiasts. As referred to in the investigation, the lower rates of coronary illness among vegans are clarified to some extent by their lower blood cholesterol levels. To clarify, the highlights of most vegetarian lovers eating regimens contain higher admissions of vegetables, foods grown from the ground that are organic, grain, nuts, fiber, and soy items. Above all, vegan-eating regimens are regularly low in fat. The relationship between the lower rate of coronary illness and vegan type of eating regimens are clearly because of this kind of eating routine with the lower admissions of soaked fat and cholesterol. Moreover, vegetarian lovers likewise seem to have diminished rates of diabetes than non-vegans. As indicated through a comprehensive study examination, it found that non-vegetarian lovers are known to have reduced utilization of high-fiber sustenance contrast and the opposite is true. The low-fiber sustenance may influence resistance of glucose and insulin prerequisites in diabetics that would identify with the danger of creating the disease as appeared in an investigation. It found that vegetable-based eating routine cuts on the injections of diabetes from 57 to 41% (Tilman and Clark, 2014).

Aside from decreasing the danger of illnesses, the vegetarian lover eating routine could be considered as a solid weight losing strategy. One main consideration that would significantly affect fearlessness is our image. For the vast majority, having a decent shape would build people’s self-esteem. A physically fit, solid body is the finest mold articulation of any person and ensures self-motivation. In any case, this universe of chance has heaps of medications and complements that are broadly advanced as reduction in weight through supplement. Many individuals transform into these items since this sort of supplement on the diet would be their easy route to accomplishing their weight reduction objectives. Unexpectedly, the supplements have a basis of connection with the capability of mischief to individuals’ wellbeing especially where national institutes deliver on the same. As indicated by the report for health specialists on the wellbeing, the uses of these alternatives to stimulate weight reduction could have reactions, and the confirmation to help is yet uncertain and unpersuasive for the employments (Flynn & Schiff, 2015). Obesity and its issues can be lessened by a few practices, for example, adjusted eating regimen, and appropriate exercise. Alongside these strategies, weight reduction is simple by the standard of the vegetarian routine of slimming down. The very much arranged vegetarian dinner gives low calories, yet significant measures of vitamins, fiber, and minerals. This is because the general standards of this eating routine depend on plants sources, which maintain a strategic distance from soaked fat and rich in fiber. One examination has discovered that on the probability that we control our eating regimen by expending low fat, dairy and expanding in products of the soil, this would accomplish and keep up weight reduction. It would also provide a credential to the same argument while another announced connection to a lower danger of obesity also.

Vegetarian eating regimen intends to advance a solid mind. An eating regimen loaded with entire nourishments, for example, natural products, seeds, vegetables, and nuts hold a plenitude of vitamins and phytonutrients. This kind of nourishment can really lower the hazard for mental clutters. Mental disarrangements may incorporate sadness, summed up nervousness, and dietary problems. These diseases can be enhanced under a very much-adjusted plant-based eating regimen. These cases may appear to be somewhat misrepresented, in any case, an investigation done by Nutritional Neuroscience, Trang Nguyen and Fernando Pinilla from the Department of Physiology and Integrative Biology, UCLA recommended the critical delivery of eating bunches of products of the soil to help the capacity of the mind (Flynn & Schiff, 2015). The animal protein-based supper contains an abnormal state of arachidonic corrosive element and this acid is known to add to cerebrum alteration, which in turn influences individuals’ temperament. Though foods grown from the ground contain an abundance of vitamin, which added to a sound mind, many plant sources and flavors are reducers of the acid, which controls individuals’ disposition. Along these lines, the vegan-eating regimen can modify the correct adjustment of substance in the human cerebrum.

Counter Argument

There are several opposition claims that have been made against vegetarian dieting especially based on the consequences that determine the natural balance in the eco-system. Animals form part of the vital cog in the fauna and flora balance. Thus, the providers of the food chain are the plants and therefore enable the achievement of energy throughout the biosphere. If the animals, which provide the meat sources, are not consumed as expected, the balance can cause a strain in the atmosphere (Tilman & Clark, 2014). Herbivores and pant cover will be consumed at a greater rate and this might lead to shortage. In turn, loss of lives can be experienced from one time to another. Therefore, opposition to vegetarian tendencies recommends that the consumption of animal protein should be increased to ensure the transitions from one level chain in the ecosystem are at the optimum.

An added claim on the topic of vegan routines is the issues of balanced diet as an indicator of optimum health condition. A balanced diet incorporates carbohydrates, vitamins, and proteins in optimum proportions. Once a human consumes the above setting, the body maintains an almost perfect state of health while ensuring that immunity is at the peak. Any deficiency of part or all of the core elements causes an opportunity for imbalance to occur. In most cases, the imbalance is then responsible for attacks in the form of illnesses or lifestyle choices that can cause ailments. Vegetarians advocate for alternative sources of proteins apart from the animal-sourced. It therefore goes against the nutrient requirements as vital inhibitors and catalysts are lost if not consumed from animals.


There are strengtheners for vegetarian eating methodologies that originate from different examination and various associations including the Public Health Harvard Schools, Nutritional Neuroscience, American Dietetic Association, and American Diabetes Association. By bringing all things into a record, a little change by lowering and wiping out the uses of meat with a greener eating routine rich in products of the soil can roll out a major improvements for the lifetime. Despite the counter claims that are leveled against the practice, it is a deliberate choice that people should be informed for better benefits. Health concerns and general nourishment issues should be put into perspective before any solid decisions are made on whether to change into vegetarian routines or not. Society should be encouraged to adopt the healthy lifestyle choices by embracing vegetarian tendencies.



Flynn, M. M., & Schiff R. A., (2015). Economical healthy diets (2012): including lean animal protein costs more than using extra virgin olive oil. Retrieved from:

Tilman, D., & Clark, M. (2014). Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health. Nature, 515, 518–522. Retrieved from:




Safety Score Improvement Plan

Safety Score Improvement Plan


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Safety Score Improvement Plan

Healthcare givers ought to be aware of some of the effective ways of preventing infection in the clinical setting to avoid the contamination that may lead to infection. It is, nevertheless, important for practitioners to understand that infections occur as a result of the contamination by organisms referred to as pathogens which include parasites, bacteria, viruses, or fungi (Harvard Health Publishing, 2017). Lack of a proper prevention plan may result in contraction of the pathogens that multiply after entering the body causing interference with normal bodily functions. Infection if not addressed at the earliest time possible may result in illness or may even cause death under severe circumstances. Clinicians, therefore, should pay attention to the individuals who are at a higher risk of suffering from the effects of infection which include people living with cancer, those who have severe injuries, and those who take medication that makes their immune system weak.

WHO recognizes the need to prevent infection and has taken initiatives that it believes will yield the required outcome. The global health institution has initiated an Infection Prevention and Control Health Care program that helps member countries to minimize the dissemination of infection in healthcare, by offering aid regarding the assessment, arranging, executing, and evaluating the national and international infection control regulations (Mason et al., 2006). WHO’s primary objectives with regards to minimizing infections include creating a multidisciplinary and cross-sectional approach for preventing and controlling the infections that occur in the healthcare setting, and issuing assistance to help lower the spread of infectious ailments while applying evidence-based control measures (Mason et al., 2006). The World Health Organization also seeks to assist how to prepare for infection and also on how to respond to health emergencies.

Description of Evidence-Based Practice

The most suitable way for health practitioners to deal with infections is to embrace a concrete evidence-based practice (EBP) that would handle the case. Sackett et al. (2000) describe EBP as the integration of individual clinical skills with the suitable external clinical approach from a systematic analysis and research. Clinicians should integrate the expertise with the patients’ values while relying on a reliable research evidence to arrive at a suitable decision that would be beneficial to the patient. The clinical skills in this instance refer to the skills, experience, and education the practitioner acquires during their practice which the healthcare giver must apply while considering the patients’ concerns, value, expectations, and preferences. The intervention process should rely on research that is conducted using the appropriate methodologies. Clinicians while applying EBP need to use new skills and must incorporate reliable literature searching, as well as use the acceptable forms of evaluating the available literature.

Action Plan

The initial step in handling the case would be to involve the infected group by engaging them in a series of questions with the motive of identifying the nature of their problem. Sackett et al. (2000) mention that when using the EBP approach, it is paramount to seek the patient’s opinions to arrive at a solution that would satisfy all the parties in the process. The practitioner, for example, may find out how the patients feel as a result of the contamination and should get the patient’s opinion regarding specific forms of intervention. The practitioner, for example, needs to identify whether the patient would prefer to get aid while they remain at the hospital, or whether they would prefer to be comminuting from home. The practitioner may also share with the patient about some of the available intervention strategies before proceeding with the implementation.  The health provider if necessary may go ahead to inquire if the cultural, social, or economic features inhibit the prevention of infection.

The practitioner should proceed to conduct a rigorous investigation by consulting various platforms. The clinicians or the team that seeks to resolve the issues emanating from failure to maintain patient safety, in this case, acquire relevant information concerning the matter from publications and electronic sources such as the internet. The intervener at this stage also relies on the consultations with other practitioners to acquire vast awareness about the problem.

The interveners proceed to apply the clinical skills to resolve the challenges that arise from failing to maintain patient safety thereby leading to infection. The professional in this scenario may offer medication or may utilize a non-pharmacologic approach to salvage the abnormality. The skills applied, in this case, comply with ethical values and seek to improve the patients’ health. The resolvers, in this case, adopt a multi-dimensional approach to achieve concrete and practical solutions.

The healthcare givers conduct an evaluation program to determine the performance of the patient. The evaluation process entails looking into the outcome at each stage to identify the areas that performed well or poorly. The professionals at this phase look at the areas that require further research or approval based on the findings of the procedure. The team seeking to resolve the issues developing from failing to maintain patient safety applies their skills at this phase to achieve an insightful outlook for future practice.






Harvard Health Publishing. (2017). How to prevent infection. Retrieved from

Mason, D., et al. (2006). Policy and politics in nursing and health care. New York, NY: Elsevier.

Sackett, D., et al. (2000). Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM. London, UK: Churchill Livingstone.

International Business Project

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International Business Project


Saudi Arabia which is one of the Gulf Corporation Countries saw an increased market of the soft drinks in 2016 qualifying this line of production into an attractive field for investors and the government that relies on such companies for revenue generation. The sales expanded mainly due to several factors including a hotter Ramadan, and an increased number of pilgrims across the year. Furthermore, an increasingly younger population also contributes towards the increased demand for soft drinks. Presently, several companies focus on the production of soft drinks such as Juice, RTD coffee, RTD tea, sports drinks, carbonates, bottled water, concentrates, and Asian specialty drinks. The Dala Juice Factory in Riyadh that functions under the watch of the Arab Company for Modern Industries is an example of a leading operator in the soft drink industry. The company performs well locally but must it must expand to foreign markets to grow its revenues. The firm while expanding into the two regions needs to consider some of the factors that may inhibit it and must come up with quick ways of overcoming the challenges.

Brief Company Overview

Dala Juice Factory is one of the most promising and distinct manufacturers and sellers of long life juice products in the Saudi Kingdom. The company functions under the Arab Companies for Modern Industries operates alongside the Dala Water Factory (Arab Companies for Modern Industries).  The company’s mission is to achieve new heights when it comes to quality and taste, and also aspires to produce goods that do not pose any health complication. The company strives to achieve customer satisfaction and seems to follow the teaching by Suchanek, Ritchter and Kralova (334) that the firm stands a proper position of generating more revenue and even recording impressive outcome when the customer feels contended. Dala’s vision is to access every household through the healthy, innovative and safe products for the ultimate happiness of the buyers. The manufacturer aspires to uphold the values of its shareholders by building a strategic connection with its business partners as well as creating a working environment that is safe for all workers.

The company carefully selects the fruits it uses for the production to deliver quality to buyers. The juice manufacturer considers fruits to be the primary ingredient because of the richness of vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, fiber, and other vital nutrients that are available in the raw materials. Furthermore, the company uses fruits to achieve a healthy weight and to minimize the risk of diseases that come with consuming juices that are not up to standard. Dala also feels that the use of fruits gives its buyers the chance to choose from a broad category, especially with the packagings that come in different sizes and shapes.

The Market Potential of Tunisia

Tunisia is a Northern African nation that borders the Sahara Desert and the Mediterranean Sea. The country that whose population ranked slightly above 11 million people as of 2016 has several features that make it a potential market for the products from Dala. One of the factors that make this place a favorable market for the Saudi-based company is that the nation conducts its operations following the guidelines of the Sharia law which is the same as Saudi Arabia. Block (12) informs that 98% of the inhabitants of the North African country are Arabs with the largest percentage (99.1%) being Sunni Muslims. Minority groups such as the Jews and Europeans also form part of the population, but each team only constitutes 1% of the nation’s population (Block 13). The prevalence of the Sharia law makes the market a suitable one for the juices from Dala because the contracts would be following almost similar structures apart from slight alterations that differ based on the formulations of each state. The nearly identical cultures further make Tunisia a favorable market for the products by Dala because of the similarity in language whereby both nations consider Arabic to be the official language. The use of Arabic in both geographical regions is likely to facilitate interaction which is a fundamental business requirement. However, it would be difficult for the seller to attract buyers or even market its products if the two nations used different languages.

Other than the similarity in law that follows the Islamic pattern, Tunisia is a suitable market for Dala because of the increasing use of internet platforms to market goods and to interact with buyers. Even though the government was initially quite strict on censorship and legal sanctions following the guidelines of Ben Ali, Tunisians are now increasingly becoming active internet users, especially on the social media platforms and on business sites (Block 16). Local and international businesses only have to register their domains with appropriate Tunisian trademark to get the opportunity to sell through the internet. The availability of e-commerce sites is also likely to favor Dala that will use the opportunity to sell its products through the internet. Dala needs the internet because, with its kind of product (juices), it requires a selling mechanism that would call on many buyers to acquire the goods before they become inconsumable.

Dala can expand to Tunisia because of the availability of trading experts who offer reliable tips on how to make the business prosperous, especially when serving as a new international entrant. Dala, for example, is likely to benefit from the guidelines of the U.S. Commercial Service that assists thousands of organizations annually to engage in trade and other services. The Economic and Commercial Section of the United States’ Embassy in Tunisia’s capital collaborates with the U.S. Commercial Service station in Morocco to assist the U.S. and other global firms that wish to expand into the Tunisian market (United States, Department of State). The juice maker is likely to gain guidance on how to plan its trade, and may also get legal advice relating to shipping, certification, packaging regulations, and product standards. The direction will be of significant significant to Dala relying on the idea that it is making its first entry into the North African country and would need some directives on how to establish operations.

The Market Potential of South Korea

South Korea is an East Asian nation that consumes the Southern part of the Korean Peninsula and shares its border with North Korea, a heavily militarized country. The country that is known for its green environment serves as a suitable place for Dala to expand its activities because of several reasons (Hart 51). An attractive feature that may attract Dala to the region is the fast-growing economy that has maintained a positive trend since the 1950s (Hart 72). South Korea’s closeness to Japan and China gives it a better opportunity to engage in trading activities, thanks to the idea the citizens in the region consider business activities to be a fundamental part of the culture.

Other than the fast developing economy, the government is democratic thus proving a less risky environment for entrepreneurs. The country has a two-party system that allows for efficient decision-making, and cases of internal party feuds are rare. The current president, Lee Myung-bak, focuses on making progressive on the economy every year, and also seeks to make the nation a world leader in green technological operations. The democracy in this region is likely to make it easy for Dala to conduct its operations because as Click (563) brings out in his paper, strict governmental restrictions may derail the efforts of a business to venture into a new international market. A strict government, for example, may impose heavy taxes and may develop more stringent environmental regulations that make it difficult for global firms to operate in the region. However, the democracy provides room for internationalization which gives foreign companies better opportunities to conduct their operations in the area.

Dala may choose to move to South Korea considering the increased consumption of fresh juice in the East Asian nation. Information by Ibrahim indicates that the intake of fresh juice continues to escalate in Korea as more citizens in this region have become aware of the health advantages of consuming fruits. Convenient stores and supermarkets are now striving to different stock types of fresh fruit juices compared to the initial years when the shelves were reserved for juices made from fruits grown in the country such as blueberries and strawberries. Jong-Wan Kim of Wooyang Frozen Foods Company Limited who operates as one of the leading distributors and importers of fresh juice in the region implies that the demand of raw juices as expanded surpassing that of processed juices with the order being high among the middle-class consumers. Kim mentions that “the fresh juice market is increasing as more Koreans are choosing fresh juices over other soft drinks such as Coca-Cola. The increase in demand now makes it possible to access brands such as mangoes, pears, and apple juices that were rare some years ago. The increase in demand has a direct impact on the rate of production which enables the region to export the surplus to other foreign states. Dala, therefore, stands an excellent opportunity of making higher sales from its activities by moving into South Korea.

Dala’s Level of Competitiveness and Possible Hindrances to Competition

Before entering into the target markets, Dala must consider its ability to compete on the international fronts to avoid misfortunes that may befall the firm once it commences its operations. A practical tool that may help to understand the company’s ability to compete at the international scale is the VRIO approach that was created by Barney in 1991. Barney (100) asserts that an organization ought to ask itself several questions that may help it to determine whether it is likely to benefit from its resources. A critical review of the resources Dala uses to engage in the manufacturing process reveals that they are valuable and which put the company among the leading juice producers in the Saudi Kingdom. The maker sources its raw materials from some of the most beautiful suppliers in the region which depicts the value of these resources. The company also tries to hire employees who have advanced skills in the development process which further stresses the value of the resources the firm applies to conduct its duties. The value Dala attaches to its resources is likely to make it competitive because the buyers in the new markets are likely to consider the manufacturer as being in a position to produce customers’ wants. The company also strives to acquire rare resources because Barney (107) implies that firms are not likely to be competitive when many companies can access the materials. The company, for example, acquires fruits from fertile fields, and which are not affected by pests. The company believes that obtaining rare raw materials will help it achieve its mission which aspires to produce quality and tasteful products. Otherwise, the company would not be in a position to compete in the new markets if its raw materials are available to all operators in the sector.

Dala also strives to use resources that are costly to imitate and which are organized to add value which increases its chances of competing at a global level. Barney (109) argues that a resource is costly to copy when other players cannot easily substitute or buy it at a fair price. A company that has resources that others cannot easily afford has higher chances of performing well because it gains the ability to serve customers or produce goods differently from the rest that utilizes similar forms of going about the operations. The obvious feature that depicts the resources Dala uses as being costly to imitate is it hires qualified personnel who require higher pays to remain at the workstation. Finally, the resources at Dala are organized in the sense that the firm has systems, policies, organizational structures, and processes that determine their application. The company, for example, has an HR unit that oversees the functioning of the employees thus increasing its chances of carrying out organized works at the global markets.

The Saudi Arabian juice maker should also conduct a SWOT analysis to identify its ability to compete with other manufacturers in Tunisia and South Korea. A SWOT analysis according to the writing by Chermack and Bernadette (385) helps an organization to make maximum gains from its high points and to improve on how it handles its weak areas. A strength that can make Dala perform well in the target markets is its productions of a wide range of nectars and drinks. Some of the nectars that attract buyers include Kiwi & Lime Mint, Mango, Mix Fruits, Pineapple, Orange, Guava, Mango & Passion, Apple Nectar, Guava, Orange & Carrots, and Tangerine (Dala). The company’s production of high-quality products also appears to be a strength that can help the organization to perform well in the target regions. The weakness that may deny Dala the chance to perform well in the foreign markets is its lack of products other than the nectars and drinks. The firm would be in a better position if it ventured in other areas of production. The opportunity that Dala should use to become competitive at the global scale more people are turning to fresh juices because of their nutritional values when compared with processed products. The other weakness that may deny Dala the chance to perform well in the two markets is that the company is not familiar with operations outside the continent considering that it only supplies its products to a few nations in the GCC. Finally, the opportunity that may make Dala perform well in Tunisia and South Korea is that both regions welcome foreign investors and provide a humble working ground for such operators. The juice producer should make use of the opportunity to invest in these areas and to gain more revenues from the activities in these locations.

It is, however, fundamental for Dala to be aware of some of the issues that may deter proper selling of the product in the target market. First, it comes out in the writing by Block (20) that the population is growing at a slow pace following the 2011 revolution that sought to oust Dictator Ali. The political actions in the past also affected the economic growth which is taking place rather slowly than expected. The slow growth affected the sales of juices that recorded a 26% growth in the off-trade value but witnessed a 7% reduction in the trade-off volume sales. The Finance Law of 2016 further subjects all types of juices to a taxation of 25% which the problem is becoming more difficult to handle for the players in this industry now that the demand is going down.

It is also significant to look into some of the factors that may make it difficult for Dala to compete favorably in the East Asian country. First, the data by Euromonitor International (a) reveals that more South Koreans are becoming aware of the health issues that come with taking sugary substances which appears to be scaring many people from using the products, particularly during breakfast. Furthermore, even though the region continues to record increased demands for the products, the area has recorded lower trade sales over the past half a decade which seems to be a threatening factor the players in this region. The negative trade growth in the sector pose some challenges to teams that may wish to exploit foreign markets and may have no option but to maximum on the locality where the number of consumers appears to be promising. Unfortunately, being unable to make maximum benefits from the external markets limits the revenues a manufacturer may gain from its activities.



Dala should expect to encounter competition from some of the leading manufacturers in Tunisia and South Korea. The Saudi Arabian firm should expect considerable competition from Societe Nouvelle des Boissons Gazeuses that recorded the highest retail value of 47% (Euromonitor International). The private company in Grombalia that functions in the food and beverages sector focus on the production of both non-alcoholic drinks and fruit juices (ZAWYA) which puts it at a better strength compared with Dala that specializes in the production of juices. The company that started its operations in 1980 uses effective marketing techniques to woo its buyers which include internet marketing as well as issuing products at lower prices. The manufacturer also strives to be unique by packing its products in 1 and 1.5 liter bottles which are relatively larger than the smaller packaging used by Dala where the maximum carriage is one liter. The company is also making entries into the Western nations such as the U.S. and U.K which further gives it the ability to compete on a global scale. Dala is likely to find it easy to compete with the Tunisian firm because both companies focus on the production of fresh juice. However, Dala might have to struggle to take some portion of the market already consumed by Societe Nouvelle des Boissons considering that the latter operates in its home country. Dala should make close ties with the Tunisian-based company to understand how to win over the consumers in the North African state.

Apart from Societe Nouvelle des Boissons, Dala should expect a considerable amount of competition from Societe de Fabrication de Boissons de Tunisie (SFBT) in Tunis. The private firm has stations in at least 25 locations in the country and specializes in the production of multiple products. Other than the creation of mineral water, the firm produces a wide a range of juices, beer, and milk (Oxford Business Group). The company’s strength lies in the fact that it provides water, beer, and milk as opposed to Dala that only manufactures juice. SFBT’s focus on other areas of production may make it quite challenging for the Saudi-based firm to compete with the African nation which is also making entry into other African states such as Nigeria, Egypt, and Morocco (Oxford Business Group). Other than selling its brands such as Boga Soda, Marwa water, Safia water, and Cetia beer, the company retails products by international companies that produce products such as 33, Coca-Cola, and Stella Artois thus making it more problematic for Dala to compete with the producer and seller. Dala should use the opportunity to investigate ways of making ties with international firms as a way of diversifying operations and as a way of making entry into global markets.

Dala should expect some considerable level of competition from the East Asian nation and must develop ways of competing with the manufacturers that are already taking more substantial portions of the market. The Saudi-based company, for example, expects a considerable amount of competition from Lotte Chilsung Beverage Company Limited that continues to dominate the South Korean market for juices (Reuters). The company that started its operations in the 1950s and which has its principal office in Seoul relies on its strength which is the production of products that fall into two major categories. The company, unlike Dala that focuses on the production of juices, manufactures non-alcoholic beverages such as carbonated soft drinks, teas, coffee, mineral water, fresh juices, and soya. The team also deals in the production of alcoholic substances such as wine, Scotch Blue, and whiskey which gives it a broader opportunity to attract buyers (Reuters). Other than focusing on multiple productions the company has a broader workforce of about 5050 employees who serve in different capacities thereby making it easy to achieve specialization. The factor that may make it difficult for Dala to compete with Lotte is the latter’s investment in various areas of production and its manufacturing of a broad category of items. Dala should strive to learn how the South Korean company specializes in the production of a wide range of goods to get a chance of penetrating the market.

Dala may also face stiff competition from leading operators such as Del Monte Fresh Produce (Korea) Ltd. that operates from Seoul. The company focuses on the production, importation, and selling of fresh fruit juices of different types including bananas, kiwis, grapes, oranges, pineapples, lemons, and mangoes which gives it a strong market base. The company that serves as a subsidiary of the Del Monte (UK) Limited commenced its operations in the region in 1999 and has made significant strides in entering the market by producing high-quality products that pose a little health risk. Other than being an international operator and offering high-quality products, the firm’s president (Keun-Ho Kang) focuses on improved forms of marketing which largely make use of internet platforms including social media that makes it possible to attract more consumers. It may be difficult for Dala to compete Del Monte considering its firm position in the global market but the Saudi firm may take advantage of its new forms of production that borrow from the Islamic world. Dala stands an opportunity for learning how to enter into foreign markets considering Del Monte’s comprehensive coverage of the global market.

Entry Strategies

Dala must settle on the suitable entry strategy in each case to avoid any inconveniency that may occur as a result of choosing the inappropriate entry technique. The juice manufacturer should apply the foreign direct investment method in entering the Tunisian market considering that Saudi Arabia and the North African nation have some similarities and the investor’s chance if experiencing significant variations is low. Tunisia being a Muslim nation, for example, structures its law by the Sharia law which is the case in the Saudi Kingdom. A majority of the inhabitants of Tunisia are Muslims which is the same as Saudi Arabia, and these similarities may make it easy for Dala to fit into the Tunisian market. Forming a direct investment in the African nation, therefore, may not present significant hindrances that may lead to the closure of the company. Dala would run at a considerable loss should it invest in a location where the regulations are entirely different from the Saudi Arabian laws. The uncertainties that come with spending in a nation that adheres to business structures that differ with that of the home country may force Dala to use the exportation method when investing in South Korea. Information by UNCTAD World Investment Report of 2017 reveals that the rate of FDI in South Korea has remained relatively constant over the years (Banco Santander) indicating that not many foreign operators invest directly in the region. The report reveals that the levels of FDI reached $12.7 billion in 2013 which was the lowest since 1998 (Banco Santander). The low recordings is an indication that using FDI as the significant entry strategy into South Korea may not be as fruitful as sending goods to this region and developing a mechanism on how to supply to different markets.

Differences and Similarities in the Strategies

The firm would note some similarities and differences in the strategies it applies to go about its operations in the two markets. One of the similarities is that the team must apply some of the business tools that help organizations to perform well regardless of the place of work. The company, for example, must use the marketing mix technique and must apply Porter’s five forces analysis to understand how to penetrate the market and how to compete respectively. The team must also develop systems, processes, and regulations that would define how activities happen in both regions to act in an organized manner and to avoid confusion. The third way in which the work strategies may be similar is that Dala must develop means of achieving customer satisfaction which serves a fundamental role in attracting more buyers and making them feel like the organization cares for their requirements (Suchanek, Ritchter and Kralova 336). The differences may be evident in the way the team markets in both nations. The juice manufacturer, for example, may have to come up with Arabic and French adverts which are the primary languages in the North African state. The manufacturer, however, must come up with adverts that use the Korean language while marketing in the East Asian country.


Dala needs to expand into global markets if it wishes to reinforce its strength at the international scale and if it desires to generate more revenues from its undertakings. The juice maker should look at the factors that make Tunisia and South Korea potential markets before venturing into these regions. The team must also consider the features that would make it compete favorably at the global scale to understand how to approach the markets. The body in charge of the expansion program should also look into the factors that may hinder the juice maker from competing with the major players in the target countries. The organization must look into the strengths and weaknesses of the competitors in each state to be in an excellent position to enter both regions. Finally, the juice manufacturer should adopt a practical entry strategy that would be suitable for both markets considering that the markets present different features.







Works Cited

Banco Santander. South Korea: Foreign Investment.” Banco Santander, 2017, Accessed 12 December 2017

Barney, Jay. “Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage.” Journal of Management, vol. 17, no. 1, 1991, pp. 99-120.

Block, Marta. Tunisia. Heinemann-Raintree, 2012.

Chermack, Thomas, and Bernadette Kasshanna. “The Use of and Misuse of SWOT Analysis and Implications for HRD Professionals,” Human Resource Development International, vol. 10, no. 4, 2007, pp. 383–399.

Click, Robert. “Financial and political risks in US direct foreign investment.” Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 36, no. 5, 2005, pp. 559-575.

Dala. “Dala: The Healthiest & the Tastiest.” Dala, 2017, Accessed 12 December 2017

Euromonitor International. “Juice in Tunisia.” Euromonitor International, 2017, Accessed 12 December 2017

Euromonitor International (a). “Juice in South Korea.” Euromonitor International, 2017, Accessed 12 December 2017

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Nursing Leadership and Management Field Experience

Nursing Leadership and Management Field Experience


Institutional Affiliation:












Nursing Leadership and Management Field Experience


The increasing cases of hospital acquired infections and the poor skin experienced by the use of an alcohol-free hand sanitizer at the Valley Medical Center has instigated the need to implement a quality improvement project that would improve the outcomes on patient safety alongside better skin outcomes from hand sanitizers used in the hospital. The ensuing project proposal and plan seeks to improve the quality of hand hygiene at the hospital through a change of the hand sanitizer and encouragement to adhere to good practices for hand hygiene.

Problem Identification

Valley Medical Center in Las Vegas, Nevada is a small sized longer-term acute care hospital (LTAC) whose workers have been experiencing dry and cracked hands due to the use of alcohol-free hand sanitizers in the hand-related hygiene. Although the hand sanitizers used in the facility are alcohol free, their frequent use by the staff at the hospital has left then with hands that are dry and cracked, which not only causes them discomfort. In addition, the sanitizers are thought to be responsible for increased prevalence of nosocomial infections in the hospital.

Change, Quality Improvement, or Innovation

The proposed quality improvement involves the replacement of the alcohol-free had sanitizer in use at the hospital with an alcohol-free hand sanitizer that has lotion incorporated therein. The lotion in the hand sanitizer would protect the skin of the users from drying and cracking after use, hence encouraging its regular use as prescribed by the five moments for hand hygiene in the guidelines on hand hygiene in healthcare by the world health organization (WHO) (Chou, Achan & Ramachandran, 2012).


Cause of the Problem

The hospital has experienced a 13 % increase in hospital-acquired infections among its patients and health workers in the past 6 months, which has lowered the health outcomes of patients and extended their stay in the hospital, thus exerting pressure on to the limited resources of the hospital. These infections may have been caused by pathogens that have lingered in the hands of healthcare workers in the hospital even after regular application of the alcohol-free sanitizers. Specifically, due to either reduced frequency of application once a user identifies the adverse effects on hands or due to the inability to eradicate the pathogens that may have become harbored in the cracks of the hands and persist there even after continued use of the sanitizers, the pathogens are then transmitted to patients causing the increase of nosocomial infections at the hospital.

Identification of Stakeholders

Various stakeholders are involved in the implementation of the quality improvement project. These include the chief executive officer (CEO) of the hospital, the chief nursing officer (CNO), the nurse manager, the nurse educator, the financial committee, the floor nurses, the housekeeping staff at the hospital, and the ancillary staff from the other departments at the hospital facility.

Stakeholders’ Interests, Power, and Influence

Each of the stakeholders identified have various interest in the project and have different powers and influence regarding the implementation of the quality improvement project at the hospital facility. As such, a stakeholder analysis would inform on the level of vested interests they possess in the issue and their power and influence regarding the implementation of the issue, and thus have the ability to influence the success of the project. This analysis would help in categorizing the stakeholders into the key players that have the highest interest and high power and influence, those whose needs should be met because of their low interest but high power and influence, those who need to be shown consideration due to their high interest but low power and influence, and those who are least important because of their low interest, power and influence. For instance, it is in the interest of the chief executive officer, the chief nursing officer and the financial committee of the hospital to embrace the problem and acknowledge its existence, and thus approve the new product that would eliminate the identified problem. These stakeholders are the key players in the project because they possess high interest in the project and have high power and influence as well. The nurse manager and nurse educator have high interest but low influence and power, and thus need to be shown consideration during the project. Figure 1 summarizes the stakeholder analysis of the different stakeholders groups involved in the quality improvement project.

Table 1. Stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder group Stakeholders Interest Power Influence
Key players CEO, CNO, financial committee High High High
To be shown consideration Nurse manager, nurse educator High Low Low
Their needs to be met Floor nurses, ancillary staff Low High High


Purpose of the Project

The proposed quality improvement project hopes increase the use of hand sanitizers in the hospital with such frequency that it conforms to the prescription of the five moments for hand hygiene in the guidelines on hand hygiene in healthcare by the world health organization (WHO).

Proposed Solution

The quality improvement projects proposes to change the hand sanitizer used by the hospital workforce for another that is alcohol-free and contains a lotion in it. The availing of a sanitizer with a lotion in it is expected to encourage the hand washing behavior among the hospital staff throughout the hospital and particularly the nurses, who are regularly in constant contact with patients and patient areas. The new alcohol-free hand sanitizer with lotion is expected to still eliminate 99% of infection-causing pathogens for up to 4 hours, at the same cost as the previous product, and can be purchased from the existing vendor who supplies the hospital thus not imposing any extra costs.

Evidence Summary

Over 1.4 million patients experienced infections associated with healthcare services with the direct contact between healthcare workers and patients facilitating the transmission of pathogens that caused nosocomial infections in a hospital setup (Luangasanatip et al 2015). Unfortunately, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) were the most common complications presented to hospital care and were a major challenge to the safety of patients in institutional care (Huis et al., 2013a). However, hand hygiene had been proven to be most pertinent activity for the prevention of hospital acquired infections. According to the world health organization, the practice of regular handwashing was the most important hygiene measure that could be used to prevent the spread of infections. However, soaps and alcohol-based traditional sanitizers were unable to persistently prevent infections because although the immediately reduced pathogens from the skin, they allowed recontamination immediately an infected surface was contacted next. Indeed, antiseptic solutions that were either alcohol-based of water-based and contained 0.2 % benzethonium chloride as the active antimicrobial agent were able to kill 99.9 % of infection-causing pathogens at an average kill time of 15 seconds after application (Czerwinski, Cozean & Cozean, 2014).

Considering that hand sanitizers had become a common alternative to soap, alcohol-based sanitizers had the disadvantage of being flammable thus requiring careful storage in addition to being prone to being ingested. In addition, some cleansing agents irritated the skin and caused its dryness, which contributed to the frequent lack of compliance with hand washing practices among other factors such as perceive low risk of contamination, being too busy to wash hands, and handwashing being a lengthy process (Naik et al., 2014). Interestingly, even after hand hygiene had been recommended by the world health organization as being critical for the prevention of nosocomial infections, compliance remained low (a world average of 38.7 %) even among countries with high incomes meaning that they had more resources to deploy for obtaining supplies, undertaking training and implementing promotional programs (Allegranzi et al., 2014; Huis et al., 2013b). The challenge of having nationwide and worldwide compliance included poor implementation of compliance programs and lack of standardized guidelines to direct not only the implementation but to also the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation programs sufficiently to enable program improvement (Naik, et al., 2014). Indeed, Huis and colleagues (2013b) observed that strategies for improving hand hygiene had focused on the individual and organizational level while ignoring the lack of involvement by the management, social culture, and the role of team activities. As such, they concluded that as strategy that targeted the leadership and teams within their social context exhibited better compliance results than those that focused on the introduction of new products and concentrated on healthcare professionals as individuals. In addition, Fuller and colleagues (2014) concluded that the two behavioral domains that were commonly liked to noncompliance to hand hygiene good practices were knowledge and memory/attention/decision making, and as such, interventions needed to target acquisition of good knowledge, conscious decision making and automatic associative learning to enhance compliance among healthcare workers.

Plan of Action

The plan for action will be guided and informed by the answers to the three questions proposed by the model for improvement. These questions are a) what the hospital is trying to accomplish, b) how it will be established that the change made is an improvement, and c) the changes that need to be made to make the change result into an improvement. As such, the first task is to establish the purpose and urgency of change through a consultative consent from all stakeholders at the hospital. This will ensure that every stakeholder understands the need for change to address the identified problem of rising hospital-acquired infections. The second task is to set up teams that would work on the different aspects of the project including budgeting and provision of necessary resources, identifying the trainers and the training schedules. The third task would be to start using the new hand sanitizer and encouraging that every stakeholder complies. Project implementation takes place at this stage and leadership is required to champion the change process and encourage compliance to hand hygiene. The fourth task is to evaluate the success of the project by obtaining feedback from users about their skin conditions and the change in prevalence of infections as a result of using the new hand sanitizer.


Table 2 presents the timelines for implementing the quality improvement project. In the timeline, different tasks and activities are identified and time is allocated for each of them. The project would take 8 weeks to implement, evaluate and improve.

Table 2. Timeline for the quality improvement project

Task Weeks
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Brainstorming and consultative meeting                
Formation of teams and team leaders                
Introduction of new hand sanitizer                
Collection of feedback of project performance                
Evaluation of effectiveness of new product                
Improvement of project to enhance effectiveness                


Resources and Personnel

Various personnel and resources are required to implement the project at every stage of the plan. For allocation of financial resources and procurement of necessary training materials including the new hand sanitizer, the key stakeholders identified during the stakeholder analysis would be involved because of their ability to make decisions related to the resources required by the project. These include the CEO, CNO and the financial committee. Educational materials needed for training of stakeholders include presentations, a projector and a laptop or desktop computer, posters, and fliers. These would be prepared by the nurse educator in collaboration with the management and the nurse manager to identify the message they should contain and what information needs emphasis. The nurse educator is expected to also hold 15-minute plenary sessions and briefings with nurses and other healthcare workers in the hospital to introduce the new hand sanitizer and highlight its improvement over the previous one, its importance and expected outcomes. In addition, the nurse educator is expected to prepare feedback collection mechanisms either using questionnaires or report cards that will inform of the experiences of using the new hand sanitizer. However, the nurse manager is expected to help the nurse educator communicate about the quality improvement through holding 15-minute in-service sessions with the nurses and collecting of any feedback about the experiences of using the new hand sanitizer.

Proposed Change Theory

The Model for Improvement is the proposed quality improvement framework proposed for the implementation of the project. This theory has been chosen for its wide applicability in numerous quality-related care problems and for its ease of application because it does not require any specialized or advanced training for the targeted population on whom change of practice is intended (Silver et al., 2016). This framework uses the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as the operational framework for the implementation of the quality improvement project. According to the theory of planned behavior, the beliefs of individuals regarding the advantages and disadvantages of performing a behavior influence the attitudes of the individuals regarding engaging and sustaining such behavior (White et al., 2015). The plan/do/study/act (PDSA) cycle would be used to test the effectiveness of the proposed change of practice in the quality improvement project because of its ability to accelerate the improvement of service quality (Huis et al., 2013b; Silver et al., 2016).

Barriers to Implementation

Lack of adequate knowledge about the improvements in the proposed hand sanitizer with lotion might hamper the implementation of the project. In addition, absence of conscious decision making by the targeted population and refusal to undertake associative learning may also hamper the implementation of the project. Moreover, lack of leadership particularly due to noninvolvement by the management of the hospital is a likely barrier to the implementation of the project (Fuller et al., 2014; White et al., 2015).

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

The learning objectives presented by this project include the use of communication and building of relationships in a healthcare environment, the understanding of the leadership role in championing initiatives for quality improvement and advancing patient safety, and the application of organizational business administration in the making of intervention plans using business practices that are appropriate for a healthcare setting. The expected outcomes from this project include the development of the ability to use established leadership theories to design and implement quality improvement initiatives in a small sized hospital. In addition, the project is expected to enable hospital-wide adherence to hand hygiene through the employment of effective communication and relation building strategies and the use of well-designed plans to implement hospital-wide hand hygiene practices.


Implementing a change of the hand sanitizer to one that has lotion in it alongside with a well-designed plan for an evidence-based practice change to improve adherence to recommended hand hygiene practices, would help improve experiences with hand sanitizers as well as improve on patient safety from the challenge of nosocomial infections. Leadership from both the management and nursing teams is pertinent for ensuring that the proposed practice change is implemented successfully and institutionalized at Valley Medical Center.

























Allegranzi, B., Conway, L., Larson, E., & Pittet, D. (2014). Status of the implementation of the World Health Organization multimodal hand hygiene strategy in United States of America health care facilities. American Journal of Infection Control42(3), 224-230.

Chou, D. T. S., Achan, P., & Ramachandran, M. (2012). The World Health Organization ‘5 Moments of Hand Hygiene’. Journal of Bone Joint Surgery94(4), 441-445.

Czerwinski, S. E., Cozean, J., & Cozean, C. (2014). Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic. Journal of Infection and Public Health7(3), 199-204.

Fuller, C., Besser, S., Savage, J., McAteer, J., Stone, S., & Michie, S. (2014). Application of a theoretical framework for behavior change to hospital workers’ real-time explanations for noncompliance with hand hygiene guidelines. American Journal of Infection Control42(2), 106-110.

Huis, A., Holleman, G., van Achterberg, T., Grol, R., Schoonhoven, L., & Hulscher, M. (2013a). Explaining the effects of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses: a process evaluation alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial. Implementation Science8(1), 41-54.

Huis, A., Schoonhoven, L., Grol, R., Donders, R., Hulscher, M., & van Achterberg, T. (2013b). Impact of a team and leaders-directed strategy to improve nurses’ adherence to hand hygiene guidelines: a cluster randomised trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies50(4), 464-474.

Luangasanatip, N., Hongsuwan, M., Limmathurotsakul, D., Lubell, Y., Lee, A. S., Harbarth, S., … & Cooper, B. S. (2015). Comparative efficacy of interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospital: systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ351, h3728.

Naik, S., Khanagar, S., Kumar, A., Vadavadagi, S., Neelakantappa, H. M., & Ramachandra, S. (2014). Knowledge, attitude, and practice of hand hygiene among dentists practicing in Bangalore city–A cross-sectional survey. Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry4(3), 159-163.

Silver, S. A., Harel, Z., McQuillan, R., Weizman, A. V., Thomas, A., Chertow, G. M., … & Chan, C. T. (2016). How to begin a quality improvement project. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 11(5), 893-900.

White, K. M., Jimmieson, N. L., Obst, P. L., Graves, N., Barnett, A., Cockshaw, W., … & Martin, E. (2015). Using a theory of planned behaviour framework to explore hand hygiene beliefs at the ‘5 critical moments’ among Australian hospital-based nurses. BMC Health Services Research15(1), 59-68.




Implications for Operations Management

Implications for Operations Management


Institutional Affiliation:


Implications for Operations Management


Operations management is the control function, which is responsible for coordinating and administering the needed resources when taking into account the production of both goods and services in any organization. The functionality deals with the nucleus of all capabilities that the organization is established and dependent upon. It is concerned with the overall design, control, and planning of capital for all endeavors. It affects the encompassed systems of all processes that are used to generate any production. It is essential to assess the same type of product or service from different firms under the scopes of organization’s production processes, customer interactions, and relevant technologies used in the respective setting. The translated effects on the areas of improvement, impact on the culture, efficiency, as well as success of each organization are then brought to the fore. The authoritative culture, initiative, aggressive circumstance, and business system in any organization determine the operations management in it with the success or failure that it experiences.


The two companies that will be used in the analysis are McDonald’s and Starbucks especially with their international basis for business operations and profitability. McDonald’s is the world’s largest chain of restaurants by revenue admission with the potential of serving of over 69 million clients on a daily basis in more than 100 nations. The outlets number over 36,000 spread from one region to another according to the management’s strategic operations. Starbucks Corporation is a coffee firm and chain of coffeehouses spread across the world. The locations number over 23,000 with almost a one-third of its total representation in the world being on other countries apart from the United States. The countries total 75 with a continental representation of six. Both companies are all American and have the same line of business when it comes to restaurants and coffee shops.

Both McDonald’s and Starbucks companies are involved in the supply chain operations as well as servicing in the restaurant and coffee shop segments. One of the key globalization methodologies that McDonald Company utilizes is the diversifying and affiliating plan. In the diversifying, the organization can open chains of its eateries over any country on the planet at the inclined time. The organization at that point utilizes its own enablement of administration and representative base keeping in mind the end goal to guarantee that its operations are in accordance with the standard conventions set from the base camp in the United States. As indicated by the diversifying assertions, all returns and expenses from every one of the chains of the eateries are exchanged to the primary organization (Stevenson, 2017). The organization through its managerial capacities conveys the by and large exercise of expert as far as administration, installment of practical costs, taking into account the workers and guaranteeing the income base is in a dynamic state. It likewise guarantees that the diversifying charges is conveyed on time a computation of rate deals meet with the set norms as premise of offers.

Starbucks on the other hand takes the initiative of starting from the coffee growers, storage facilities, roasting plants, warehouses, vendors, the distribution centers, and lastly to the retailers. The inbound logistics in this case are affirmed by the layout on firm infrastructure, human resource management, procurement, as well as the marketing and outbound dimensions. Finally, the company’s reliance is left to the retail sales with effective allocation of value and reliability based on the location of each of its coffee shops (Paryani, 2012). The centered reliance is adept to the overall organization’s structure and policy with the maintenance expected in each of the competitive applications that are required. When dealing with the diversification processes, the company is also adept to the rigors of ensuring there is a local representation in each coffee shop as per the sustainable advantage that has been set.

In its worldwide operations, McDonald’s organization likewise looks for the passage mode through alliance of its establishment name. It empowers renting the chain of eateries in any global goal under concurred contract and procedural corporate business level of operations. The accessibility of business sectors under these assertions is constantly less demanding as the mother organization caters for the operational cost upon passage and foundation while there is use of less demanding work from the locally accessible representatives (Martin, 2009). There is restricted requirement for exiles and moving of administrations as indicated by administration and managerial capacities, which require more capital and insecurity of accomplishment. Furthermore, the organization’s method of passage is worthwhile to the firm as it complies with the political, financial, social, and natural commitments of the host nation. It lessens any odds of contention on granting of work to the neighborhood individuals while keeping up great advertising.

Starbucks has the ability to collaborate with co-manufacturers in each of the regional representations as part of the overall strategic plan when dealing with the production basis. The allegiance partners number twenty-four located on a worldwide scale. The aggregate raw materials from each of the continent’s bearing provide for the distribution across all the regional development chains and meeting the targets. The company then operates supplies from the inbound and outbound logistical setting that has witnessed the company’s ascent into a premier blueprint for success in an all-round format (Harvey, Heineke, & Lewis, 2016). The sourcing is integrated in a vertical format from a backward perspective as it operates its own breweries that number six. On the forward charge, it then runs down a network of retail outlets for both coffee and non-coffee products.

            Driven by its frank CEO, Starbucks attendants and coffee makers have been urged to chat with clients about social matters identified with race disparity, and different concerns influencing them and their clients. The espresso chain propelled a progression of unique recordings called “Up standers” that each component individuals in the group doing respectable acts. It is difficult to state what influence the communal explanations have on Starbucks’ main concern, however it has surely helped the organization to get media scope and set itself separately as an alternate sort of production than a considerable lot of its rivals. McDonald’s appears to have taken a comparable sign as of late. The company’s patrons what is currently called “Espresso with a police officer” day. The development began as of 2011 in California with the possibility that officials could convene with local people in a casual setting over some espresso. The development has advanced and this year, National Coffee with a police officer day is observed in October. 7th. The Justice Department even conveyed a formal public statement giving support on the development. McDonald’s has since turned into a supporter of the initiative by offering its areas and free espresso to participants. While a considerable lot of the gathering occur at areas other than the company’s premise (some of which include its nemesis Starbucks), the company is banding together with many authority offices around the nation to have the occasions at McDonald’s areas authoritatively.

It emerges that most of the effort in the Starbucks appropriation of lean operations standards is centered on expanding the character of the espresso. More expected taste outcomes are part of the itinerary and reducing the time it takes to prepare espresso and serve up the client. Developing the brand character issues and client encounter aside, exhibiting the Starbucks line is not difficult, yet can be somewhat complicated in view of one noteworthy motive. The quantity of clients in the framework is vast. Effect of a solitary client on the execution of the framework is little, in that a solitary client expends a little level of the framework assets. All clients are autonomous, as appeared by their choice to utilize the framework are free of different clients.

Starbucks’ plan of action is gone for high spending clients and, thus, its stores are intended for a lower every day volume, contrasted with McDonald’s fast administration design. McDonald’s is taking a shot at a change and presenting more “gourmet” menu things, which should build the normal client, spend per visit. That said its model is not practically identical with Starbucks. The two organizations recognize that a huge change in the model affects their incomes (Haddad, Zouein, Salem, & Otayek, 2016). For example, McDonald’s serving new patties is a working issue since it expands the time spent to serve a client arrange, affecting its volumes and incomes contrarily. Additionally, Starbucks confronted a decrease in practically identical deals in its most recent announced quarter, because it could not deal with the gigantic volume caused by the achievement of versatile request and pay.

When endeavoring to pick the procedure methodology of an organization, the officials need to concentrate on client necessities, cost, and proficiency. Starbucks’ procedure has completed a great job in these angles. They have owned the ability to build the temperament of the items they offer, appropriating them the inclinations of their clients, while likewise diminishing expense. Their finance is not held in new item improvement or in thing lines that are not alluring to the target markets. McDonalds has managed to do the inverse. By continuing to create and present diverse new items, their price has risen and they have not possessed the capacity to concentrate on what their clients’ inclinations are. McDonalds is sufficiently enormous and has the cash to do this and not see any generous misfortune in piece of the pie, but rather in the event that they keep on doing it, that will not proceed (Elking, Paraskevas, Grimm, Corsi, & Steven, 2017). On the off chance that the patterns of this last year proceed with, the hole amongst them and Starbucks is just going to get littler.

As Starbucks proceeds with their endeavors to rebrand themselves, they have completed two or three things that have worked out well for them. Most prominently, they have diminished the measure of their menu however expanded the nature of things they keep on offering. McDonalds then again keeps on creating and offer more things. This has caused an expansion in multifaceted nature and a lessening in the nature of what they are putting forth. Subsequent to taking a gander at how the two organizations have performed in the course of the most recent year, clearly Starbucks has taken the better course. Starbucks’ system to develop by means of its top notch Reserve Roasteries will guarantee that the organization can hold its model and develop incomes. The Reserve stores energize higher client spending through “gourmet” espresso and the model will guarantee that volumes are reasonable and incomes develop in the meantime (Chakraborty, & Kay Chuan, 2013). This will empower Starbucks to use its qualities and convey development.

McDonald’s is yet attempting to discover its personality and the organization is trying different things with different alternatives. Notwithstanding, on the off chance that it can pull in clients with advancements inside the snappy administration display, the organization should see relentless development over the long haul. Starbucks has been making waves about the amount it is changing in light of new shopper spending designs (Bamford, & Forrester, 2013). To begin with, it was the declaration that it intended to return to the evaluating of its espresso and heated products and backpedals to rudiments with the re-presentation of Pike’s Place espresso. At that point, it was the declaration that it would consider shutting down some unnecessary Starbucks stores and seek after other cost-cutting measures.


In financial terms, the genius of American assembling does not generally lie in making items. Alternatively, maybe, it is about large-scale manufacturing and the division of work. In a well-run industrial facility, machines and authoritative functions substitute for ability. In its initial stages, fabricating implied an entire pack of rifles could be delivered on a sequential construction system by a bundle of specialists. That implied significantly higher yield and lower costs for customers, raising genuine earnings in all cases. It likewise brought benefits for specialists. Partaking in large-scale manufacturing let individuals catch a portion of the estimation of progressive fabricating without getting the right stuff important for high quality generation. Both Starbucks and McDonald’s, for instance, have an advanced inventive work operation that devises new products previously trying them out in the industry. As in any production, huge numbers of the new ideas turn out not to be alluring or accepted. Others, comparable to the McRib, are just feasible under bizarre monetary situations. Yet, when fruitful, incorporated product advancement lets cutting edge manual workers add a motivation without definitely expecting to augment their particular abilities that is production. Chains likewise take into consideration a gauge of exporting.



Bamford, D. R., & Forrester, P. L. (2013). Managing planned and emergent change within an operations management environment. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23(5), 546-564. Doi: 10.1108/01443570310471857

Chakraborty, A., & Kay Chuan, T. (2013). An empirical analysis on Six Sigma implementation in service organizations. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 4(2), 141-170. Doi: 10.1108/20401461311319338

Elking, I., Paraskevas, J., Grimm, C., Corsi, T., & Steven, A. (2017). Financial Dependence, Lean Inventory Strategy, and Firm Performance. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 53(2), 22-38. doi:10.1111/jscm.12136

Haddad, M. G., Zouein, P. P., Salem, J., & Otayek, R. (2016). Case Study of Lean in Hospital Admissions to Inspire Culture Change. Engineering Management Journal, 28(4), 209-223. doi:10.1080/10429247.2016.1234896

Harvey, J., Heineke, J., & Lewis, M. (2016). Editorial for Journal of Operations Management special issue on “Professional Service Operations Management (PSOM)”. Journal of Operations Management, 42-43(5), 4-8. doi:10.1016/j.jom.2016.03.005

Martin, P. (2009). As risk management evolves, is operational risk management important? The Journal of Operational Risk, 4(4), 75-84. doi:10.21314/jop.2009.066

Paryani, K. (2012). Product quality, service reliability, and management of operations at Starbucks. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 3(7), 112- 127. doi:10.4314/ijest.v3i7.1s

Stevenson, W. J. (2017). Operations management. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.


Institutional Affiliation



Institutional Affiliation:


The plan seeks to come up with response  procedures for a fire breakout at the Flatiron  Building.

The 22-storey landmark is located at 175th  Avenue  in Manhattan, New York.

The building does not only serve as a landmark in  the city but also acts as a historic place having  being built in 1902.

Currently, the building houses several offices that  serve different purposes.



The premises will be declared out of bound during  the occurrence of the fire and every person will be  assisted to move out safely.

All the occupants of the building will be asked to  gather at the nearest fire assembling point.

Some of the people who have experienced shock  will be moved to the nearest health facility for  assistance.

The relevant groups responsible for putting out  fires will be notified of the incident and shall be  requested to arrive to the scene.


After the rescuers arrive at the scene, they will be  the only people allowed to get close to the second  floor that will be on fire.

The groups in charge of the incident will put an  emergency advert on media platforms such as TV  and radio stations requesting for more support  from other groups.

The fire fighter will arrive on the scene and act  together with the police in controlling the  multitude that will be gathering around.



The incident commander shall be in charge of the  command system and will be in control of defining  the goals of the operation and the period for the  undertaking.

Other than incident commander, the command  system will include other officials such as Safety  Officer and Public Information Officer who will  provide guidance on how to handle the incident.




The body in charge of operations shall come up  with a practicable strategy, and shall define the  specific tasks for the assisting groups.

The team in control of operations shall coordinate  and execute strategies as well as apply varying  tactics to achieve the objectives of the response  mechanism.



The logistics team shall play an important role of  supporting the groups in charge of operations and  command by providing personnel, equipment, and  supplies.

The logistics group will oversee all the technical  work pertaining to the functioning of the rescuing  group.



The group in control of planning shall support the  command and operations teams in processing the  information about the incident.

The group shall coordinate information across the  response team.

Coordinates the activities for the incident  response mechanism.



The administration supports the command and  the operations team, and also oversees the  logistics and planning departments.

The administration provides  financial assistance  and define regulatory requirements.

The administration, for example, provides money  to acquire a new hose pipe to handle the case if  the current one cannot manage the situation.


Once the groups in charge of the operation are  certain that the danger is out, they will initiate a  recovery process to identify any adversities.

Health officers with the help of other groups will  identify if there are any injuries.

The fire fighters together with constructors will  take a look at the burnt floor and the entire  building to identify any major defaults.

The law enforcers will interact with some people  to gather the necessary information regarding the  incident.


The parties in charge of the rescue process will  carry out an after action review (AAR) to identify  the areas of weaknesses during the rescue  mission.

The process will also identify any deficiencies  within the ICS system.

The review may entail creating future directives.



The AAR process will focus on asking the  eyewitnesses and the victims what happened.

The responses may also describe what ought to  happen during the period.

The participants will describe why what happened  could not be prevented.

All the groups will share their views regarding the  lessons acquired from the process.


Image source; Just Fun Facts, 2017

Image source; The Times of India, 2017

Image source; Compliance Solutions, 2017


Image source; gettyimages, 2017

Image source; Pixabay

Image source; Berry, 2011

Image source; Cheatography 2017

Image source; Gatson, 2015


Assessing effects of Leadership Wrangles on Future Online Marketing and Selling using Past and Present Data


Assessing effects of Leadership Wrangles on Future Online Marketing and Selling using Past and Present Data

By [Your Name]
















1.     The organization (maximum 1 page)

Arizona Beverages is one of the leading manufacturers of juice energy drinks, and iced tea and has its headquarters in Woodbury, New York. The company traces its roots in the 1970s when two friends (Don Vultaggio and John Ferolito started a beverage distribution channel in Brooklyn when they began as beer producers (Peterson-Withorn). The partners, however, shifted to the production of non-alcoholic beverages in 1992 when the company first produced its bottled iced tea and juices (Peterson-Withorn). The company is one of the leading in America, and it is making entry into foreign markets through its exports. The company is presently struggling to maintain its online buyers following a misunderstanding between the two leaders who have to settle an ownership case in court (Peterson-Withorn). The disagreement that has lasted several years continues to harm the enterprise in the sense that the online buyers feel that the firm is losing its credibility and may not be in an excellent position to serve them. The management worries that the issue might harm the future operations of the company thereby creating the need to address the issue.

The organization whose mission is to provide high quality and healthy products to its buyers rely on other groups of people who must change their behavior to achieve better performance. The customers, for example, must view the firm positively rather than developing a negative attitude as a result of the misunderstanding. The suppliers must also develop a favorable view of the company regardless of the internal disputes. Fortunately, the business is willing to accept change from the way it adjusts alterations in the business environment and the entire sector. The firm is ready to embrace the change that will help it perform better, and this may encompass adopting advanced technology, customer relation techniques, and forms of marketing.

2.     The first project (maximum 1 page)

The first project is a predictive analytics that seeks to explain how online buyers are likely to behave in the coming years should the current stalemate continue. The analysis in this scenario falls under behavioral analytics that focuses on describing consumers’ behavior on e-commerce channels, internet and mobile applications, and the internet of things (Nagaitis). The company shall rely on the past and present statistical data that describe the company’s performance at a time when it faces such stalemate at the leadership. The company entails calculating the performance (profit and loss) during the period and also involves identifying the rate at which customers use online platforms to buy or to inquire about the products at a time when the company’s disputes have hit the headlines. The data from the process will help to identify whether buyers are likely to increasingly use online platforms to interact with the company in future should the feud between the two partners (Vultaggio and Ferolito) fail to cease.

The project serves a fundamental role in determining the company’s future performance. The project will inform the group about the impact of engaging in leadership wrangles on online sales and will also provide awareness on the essence of acting while aiming of satisfying and restoring confidence to buyers. The project’s primary goal is to create structures that shall guide online selling styles in the future. The plan aligns with the organization’s strategic goals in the sense that its results will contribute towards adopting measures that facilitate the issuance of quality services which is the company’s mission. Furthermore, the undertaking ties to the top executive’s purpose which is to promote teamwork as a success driving mechanism, while its critical benefits to the organization and its people include the adoption of better online selling frameworks in the future and sensitization on the essence of shunning internal conflicts.

3.     Assessing the organization’s receptivity to starting this first project (maximum 3 pages)

The company’s stakeholders are likely to respond differently to the commencement of the exercise. The workers, the shareholders, and the buyers are more likely to embrace the project and would want it to commence at the earliest time possible. The workers, for example, would love to witness the beginning of the program to be confident that their activities will have lucrative returns in the future, particularly with regards to online sales. The workers would want a scenario where buyers access the goods and services through online platforms rather than consuming a lot of time in the fields trying to woo consumers. The shareholders would also like to see the project commenced in the earliest time possible to understand whether their savings will be secure in the coming years depending on whether the leaders will resolve their misunderstanding to pave the way for improved online selling. The buyers on their part would want to see the beginning of the exercise to restore their confidence in the company as a firm that will continue to provide excellent services even in the coming years. The primary factor that may make the buyers to embrace the project is that they consider the company as one of the best producers of juices and iced tea not only in Arizona but across the entire nation.

Vultaggio and Ferolito (the significant shareholders in the company) are more likely to respond more slowly to the project. Peterson-Withorn writes that the two are best known for the nearly decade-long legal battle where they strive to own a more substantial portion. The conflict had severe impacts on 2015 when it led to the dissolution of the organization. Even though the dust seems to be settling, competitors such as Pure Leaf and Gold Peak are taking vast portions of Arizona’s market share (Peterson-Withorn). The two, however, may respond slowly to the commencement of the project following the hatred that has developed between the two following Ferolito’s interest to sell his 50% share to a company that he believed would be Arizona’s strategic partner. The two might feel that adopting the process might make them lose a significant portion of what they think is rightfully theirs. Furthermore, the two might feel that giving in to the project would depict them as being weak in their standings.

The process shall incorporate different groups of people and organizations but will be keen on its inclusion, but it might be difficult to include some people thereby making it challenging to achieve the desired outcome in the shortest time possible. Apart from involving the employees who keep records relating to online sales, the exercise shall incorporate other companies to identify the fluctuations of their online sells at times the leadership experiences some challenges at times when everything is proceeding smoothly. The process shall also include buyers who have purchased or accessed Arizona products using online platforms to find out their buying patterns over the duration when the company’s leadership has encountered constraints. However, it might be difficult to persuade the two leaders considering the misunderstanding between them. Unfortunately, the failure to convince the two might have detrimental effects considering that the success of the venture will depend on their agreement to participate. The weak relationship between the two individuals may result in what Christensen (43) describes as lack of insight and proper framework in dealing with organizational challenges. The difficulty in persuading the two leaders, therefore, requires the adoption of appropriate mechanisms that will bring the two together to understand how similar issues will derail future online marketing and selling activities.

The behavioral analytics that seeks to explain how online buyers are likely to behave about using online platforms in future depending on the relationship between business leaders shall serve a significant purpose in assessing the organization’s receptivity for the project. The executor of the plan shall first identify whether the company has a record of the sales it makes through online platforms, especially the statistics that describe the sales before and after the misunderstandings. Availability of the information will indicate that the firm is in an excellent position to complete the exercise. Analytics will also help to identify the organization’s receptivity by detecting whether the employees who collect and maintain the data will be willing to perform the comparison process to achieve a predictive data that would determine the company’s performance in the coming years.

4.     The steps to getting this first project started (maximum 4 pages)

Starting the project will require the adoption of several steps to avoid confusion that occurs due to failure to work under detailed guidelines. The initial phase will be conduct relevant inquiry on how to perform a successful analytical process using statistical data and other pertinent information. The guidance shall come from different sources including publications and online materials so long as they are relevant to the inquiry. The next step will involve collecting all the suitable materials that will aid in completing the process. The resources, in this case, will mean the finances that will facilitate the undertaking from the beginning to the end. The collecting of the necessary materials will include making sure that the IT infrastructure is stable and the computers can retrieve past data with precision. The third step would be to draft an outline that will provide guidance on how to complete the undertaking. The framework shall identify some of the critical areas that require more attention, and will also define the time allocated in completing every exercise. The fourth step will be to contact all the relevant parties that will play a part in achieving the wanted results.

The process, as already mentioned, will function well with the inclusion of different people who ought to be informed before the and during the undertaking. The executors of the exercise will first communicate with the business leaders to inform them about project’s objectives and requirements. Other than telling them about the project’s goals, contacting the business leaders will provide the go-ahead to proceed with the exercise up to advanced levels, and may also create the chance to acquire the necessary materials to make the process successful. The next group to communicate with will be the team managing the past and current data relating to online sells and purchases. The communication will reveal whether the organization has enough data to make the process successful, and will also provide awareness on whether the team has other equipment or resources such as the required knowledge to complete the process that relies on statistical analysis and comparison of data to predict future outcome. The third group to inform about the process will be the leading shareholders. The interaction will make them aware of the goals of the undertaking and shall enlighten about the procedures the team looks forward to using to arrive at the required outcome. Finally, the executor of the process shall contact the customers who prefer to buy through online platforms and inquire about their rate of hiring when they hear about significant disagreements at the organization, particularly among the leaders. The customers’ opinion, in this case, will be of significance in judging whether the group would be able to make more sales in the coming years through the online platforms should the wrangles cease to end.

Other than contacting the different groups, the communicator will pass messages that may have a significant impact on the proceedings of the analytical process. The message to the business leaders would be that the prolonged court cases do not only hurt the current online selling practices but may also have future adversities which makes it necessary to address the issue in the earliest time possible. The message will inform that the quarrel is having a toll on the company’s sales which makes it necessary to come up with ways of preventing future problems. Other than the message to the business leaders, the message to the team managing the company’s data will be to be prepared for the upcoming exercise that may require several days or even months to complete. The message to the data handlers will also touch on the need to carry out a further investigation that may help to attain the required outcome, and which may contribute to overcoming any impediments that may derail the undertaking. The primary message to the stakeholders is to inform them to be keen during the entire process to evaluate the outcome of the findings and determine whether the results indicate a better future for the manufacturer. Finally, the message to customers would be to provide all the necessary information that may help the executors of the exercise to achieve the outcome that would facilitate the adoption of measures that would prevent future stalemates. The data collectors and analysts, for example, will inform the consumers that the process aims at improving the quality of online selling and buying which may be of benefit to them since they would not have to move to the selling stores to acquire the product of their choice.

The communicator while contacting the different groups will apply effective communication mechanisms that are essential to the success of any interactive process. The sender of the message, for example, shall rely on the guidelines by Agarwal and Garg (45) that the point should be easy to comprehend to give a chance to offer a response. The communicator will also remain humble while approaching the different parties to avoid a scenario where the respondent becomes offended.

5.     Assessing the organization’s receptivity to using the insights this first project generates (maximum 3 pages)

Even after the creation of steps that will help to complete the exercise and communicating with some of the groups that may influence activity’s outcome, it is essential to make some structural changes to benefit from the insight. A significant move would be to restructure the all the features that do not appear to be in line with the expectations. The changes at this stage may include acquiring better computers that may retrieve information at a first rate if it seems that the available ones may encounter breakdowns. The move may also entail increasing the number of executors when it appears that the available work surpasses the number of individuals who will implement the plans. Finally, the change may touch on introducing more advanced literacy materials that inform about ways of conducting successful processes and discarding the ones that show evident forms of weakness or incapability.

Other than making changes before the implementation of the program, several people and things must change in the organization to make good use of the results of the work. The two leaders who are at the center stage of the conflict (Vultaggio and Ferolito) must change their attitude towards the feelings that they have towards each other to pave the way for the execution of the statistical process. The two elders should decide to work as a unit and focus on how to resolve their conflicts to make it possible to improve future online selling and buying activities. Other than the business leaders who must change their perception towards the misunderstanding between them, the employees need to adopt the view that internal wrangles harm business activities to benefit from the outcome of the analytics. A change in behavior by the workers will pass the impression that the company focuses serving the buyers in the best way possible thus creating the avenue to improve online selling and buying in the future. Otherwise, the company is less likely to benefit from the outcome of the undertaking when the workers continuously engage in disputes to the extent that it generates public interest. Other than the people who have to change to gain from the activity’s outcome, several things must change to experience positive gains. The organization, for example, need to come up with new regulations that define the ownership of the company to avoid future stalemates that may impede online activities. The changes in the laws should also prevent the occurrence of internal conflicts that may derail the efforts to sell and buy using e-commerce.

The changes introduced by the project will be of significance to the organization and the people in it in several ways. First, acquiring the knowledge that internal leadership wrangles strain business activities including online selling will guide the leaders and all other workers to avoid disputes at all times. Omisore and Abiodun (126) assert that lack of understanding between the organizational leaders may shift the focus to actions that do not have a positive impact on the business operations. Omisore and Abiodun (126) proceed to mention that the ethical issues usually develop hatred and competition that deny the firm the opportunity to concentrate on realizing the organizational goals and objectives. Knowing the implications of poor relations as leaders will help not only the administrators but also the junior service providers who will be cautious to avoid confrontations. The changes will also benefit the organization in the sense that it will be able to attract more online buyers in the future which will increase the corporation’s financial status. Finally, the agency shall benefit from the procedure in the way it will learn how to use analytics to solve current issues that may have disturbing implications in future. The organization will understand that conducting a prosperous analytical process requires the effort of different groups as well as advanced working systems.

Analytics shall be of great significance in assessing the receptivity of the organization for the changes introduced by the project. The team in charge of sales shall follow the number of sales the company makes in future either when the current feud will be over or when it will still be happening. The analysts will use the available data on sales to determine whether the financial situation has improved or lowered. Increased earnings will mean that the company has responded positively to the changes while reduced revenues will mean that the firm might have to embrace an alternative plan.

6.     The steps so that people use the insights of this first project (maximum 4 pages)

It may be essential to take some measures that will motivate people to make changes that will facilitate the implementation of the insights of the analytics work. The initial step would be to present them with the data showing the improved online sales which are as a result of the increased cooperation among business leaders and the workers.  The expanded online sales will motivate the workers to maintain a collaborative style of work that will keep the good performance. Apart from encouraging the leaders and the workers to change through the explanations that employ the statistical data on sales, it would be essential to engage the workers in talks that inform them about the effects of constant business wrangles on online purchases. The conversations that tell the service providers about the dangers of continuous fights will go a long way in pushing the employees to embrace the changes introduced as a result of the findings of the analytic process.

Implementing the changes introduced by the findings of the analytics will require the cooperation of several people who must be contacted immediately after the release of the conclusions of the analytics process. The first people to communicate with will be the leaders whose wrangles serve as the primary reason for carrying out the prescriptive analytics. The message that would be forwarded to the administrators is that the process reveals increased online sales when the business owners serve as a unit rather than different entities. The second group to contact will be the buyers, and the message to this team will be that they are likely to witness improved online services following the improved relations among the business leaders. The customers will be informed about the findings of the process telling that the firm has resorted to upholding peace for the sake of improving customer services. The final group to be contacted following the results of the analytics will be the shareholders who will be informed to maintain their investment at the company because the future has hopes should the leaders, and the employees decide to put away their differences and work as a team with a common objective. The messages to the different groups will encourage the recipients to embrace change and to view the company as being dedicated to achieving the best outcome.

The groups that witness the changes introduced with the findings of the analytics will respond differently. The workers would undoubtedly embrace the changes more rapidly with the anticipation that the company will now focus on producing quality substances as its mission requires. The customers may improve the way they use online platforms such as the company’s website to buy rather than visiting different shopping centers to acquire the products of services. The buyers may even transform how they interact with the manufacturer via social media avenues such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. The consumers may even develop more interest in viewing the company’s operations on YouTube as well as to communicate using Skype. The purchasers may also champion for the changes to happen rapidly with the belief that the transformation will pave the way for increased e-mobile transactions that Delfmann, Albers, and Gehring (212) describe to be favorable for buyers with relatively lower earnings than the middle-class earners. The service providers and the shareholders will also embrace the transformation with jubilation expecting to reap from the higher returns the company shall record from the escalated online transactions.  The employees and the shareholders may put additional effort to implement the changes with the hope that a more unified leadership will not only impact on the online sales but will also create an excellent reputation for the organization that functions in an area where completion is stiff. Even though the two major shareholders (Vultaggio and Ferolito) may show reluctance to accept the project during the initial stages, they are more likely to become united once they witness the escalated online sales that come with serving as a team. The leaders may also gain the desire to implement the changes when they become aware that the new formations can create a good reputation for the iced tea maker.

Analytics shall be of significance in leading the changes necessary for the business to gain from the initial project. The evaluators will collect statistical data on financial performance from other companies that experience leadership hardship and compare these with that of Arizona. The data may reveal that the changes have positive effects on the sales thus surpassing other businesses that have problems achieving stable leadership. Other than comparing performance with other companies, the analysts will use past recordings to determine whether Arizona is making improvements in its online sales after the introduction of the changes or the income remains to be the same or lower. Higher performance on the company’s part will mean that the changes are helpful which will encourage the workers to embrace the transformations.

It would be essential to take some initiatives that would make the changes from the first project last. The initial step would be to conduct meetings with some of the groups that are likely to benefit from the changes to inform them about the essence of working hard to maintain the changes. The meetings, for example, shall discuss how upholding peace and togetherness while going about the business practices increases the chances of making more online sales which ultimately impact on the business’ outcome. Other than holding meetings, it may be important to put up memos and other relevant posts informing the workers to uphold the changes that have the chance of improving performance and general outcome and not only making the online sales better. The final step to make sure that the findings of the project last will be to apply different motivational techniques that will encourage the workers to abide by the new formation. It may be necessary at this point to apply some of the effective motivational theories such as the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs which advocates for the need to get more important things in life first before achieving others (Heylighen 42). The theory, for example, stipulates that for human beings to work harder in their functions, they must first get their physiological needs such as food, shelter, and clothing before achieving other requirements such as safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization needs (Heylighen 42). Otherwise, it may be necessary to consider other forms of ensuring that the results from the project last.

7.     Expanding the impact (maximum 4 pages)

It is fundamental to adopt ways of measuring how the changes introduced by the first project are diffused through the organization. An efficient way to measure the diffusion would be to monitor whether the leaders and employees are acting in a manner that would pave room for the implementation of the findings. A good way to follow the diffusion process, for example, would be to identify whether the leaders relate to each other in the best ways possible, and also to recognize whether the employees have a similar attitude. An excellent way to monitor the diffusion process will also be to identify whether the leaders and employees while striving to achieve peaceful coexistence are aiming at improving the online sales which appear to be at risk following the escalated differences between the business owners.

The process of analytics will play significant roles in making the changes more likely to succeed. The analysts will use data showing the employees performance before the implementation of the changes and compare the findings with the recorded outcome following the introduction of the changes to identify whether the transformations have a positive impact on the business performance. An increase in employee performance will encourage the workers to work hard to implement the changes while reduced outcome may discourage the service providers against putting effort to achieve even better performance.

Other than using analytics to make the changes more successful, it is paramount to take steps that will ensure that the amendments are adopted more widely. Conducting a sensitization program with the aim of making more workers aware of the findings will facilitate the process at which the changes are approved at a broader scale. The sensitization will take place in all departments and will inform the employees to share the information with each other to become more aware of what ought to happen to record even better outcome. Apart from carrying out a sensitization program at a broader scale, it may also be necessary to put up memos that inform about the values of embracing the changes at a wider scale.

It may also be essential to communicate with some people who form part of the organization to inform them what needs to happen to expand the impacts of the findings. The initial people to interact with will be the business leaders and the message to them would be to spread the word of the change to every part of the organization, and to lead by example in expanding the changes. The second group to communicate with will be the workers with the message to this team being that it is essential to engage in practices that facilitate the adoption of the changes at a broader scale rather than on a single portion of the organization. The message to the employees will be valid because it will discourage against being selfless and encourage the service providers to consider unity as an efficient way to realize the business goals. The third group to communicate with will be the buyers with the message that it is now more appropriate to utilize the different online platforms to acquire the goods that they want, especially when buying in bulk. The buyers will receive the message that the company now focuses on delivering the best services that would yield the desire to come again. Finally, the last group to communicate with will be the shareholders who will receive the message that they need to play a part in making the changes applicable at a broader scale.

The groups that influence the activities of the company may respond differently towards expanding the impact of the changes due to several reasons. The workers, for example, are highly likely to develop the transformation process with the belief that the outcome will improve how they relate to each other. The employees will have achieved a state where it is easy to work because the service providers will share duties without paying considerable attention to their weaknesses or backgrounds. The team will meet what West (94) describes as a smooth flow of events when employees apply teamwork, and may also come up with quick solutions to some of the challenging tasks. The other shareholders apart from the leading two may even embrace the changes with speed with the anticipation of recording more income not only because of the escalated online sales but because sellers who buy directly from stores will go for Arizona’s products now that the firm does not hit the headlines for non-ethical occurrences. The other factor that may make the shareholders to champion for the changes is that the excellent reputation may open up avenues for more shareholders who may develop the desire join the corporation. The two most significant shareholders who may be reluctant to embrace the project at the initial stages will also see the significance of enhancing the changes to put the producer at a level where it can favorably compete with other international players. The best approach on how to decide the next action would be to consult with other members of the organization as well as with experts on how analytics help companies solve problems. Finally, the design in place to achieve sustainability for analytics in the organization entails hiring professionals who will work hard to ensure that the process has no faults. All other employees will also receive training on how the system functions to gain knowledge on how they can support future ventures to achieve even better results.

8.     Creating a learning organization (maximum 2 pages)

Analytics can serve as a strategic tool for achieving the organization’s mission and its big-picture vision. The device can help the firm to rely on the data it collects starting from the past to the present to identify how sales patterns change with time depending on the situation at hand. The findings of analytics are more likely to be precise and reliable because statistical data tend to be exact and are not prone to errors. Analytics may serve as a strategic tool because it utilizes data to make the organization aware of the implications of specific ways of acting thus creating the chance to embrace changes should it occur that some actions have an undesirable outcome. Other than making the organization aware of the areas that require improvement, the process of analytics improves how the company utilizes its resources to carry out quantitative studies to provide solutions to some of the organizational issues that prevent the realization of the firm’s mission and vision.

The changes that will emanate from completing the project will serve fundamental roles in creating sustainable learning processes at the organization. The findings, for example, will encourage the business leaders and other employees to seek information on ways of preventing internal wrangles that may disrupt business operations. Some individuals serving at the station may even decide to try advanced training on how to deal with emerging conflicts, and this will help the company to prevent future uncertainties regarding confrontation at the place of work. The changes will also encourage the people serving at the organization to follow how other operators function without misunderstandings that have higher chances of impacting on the sales. Furthermore, the changes occurring from the process of analytics may facilitate the adoption of sustainable learning processes at the organization in the sense that the workers will learn the importance of relying on past and present statistical information to predict future outcome. Such type of analysis may open the chance to be aware of some of the issues that may have far-reaching effects without proper intervention measures.

Analytics will undoubtedly have a long-lasting impact on the organization in several ways. The process, for example, will inform about the essence of maintaining good relationship while offering services to avoid developing wrangles that tarnish the company’s name at a time when more players have joined the industry and are dedicated to reap vast shares of the market. Apart from educating on the need to shun misunderstandings at the workplace, the process of analytics is likely to have a long-lasting impact on the organization in the sense that it the processes that involve the mechanism will have benefits on the firm. Understanding the effects of leadership wrangles and taking steps to resolve the issue will always benefit the company because the managers would not want to engage in similar activities that only harm the firm. The process of analytics will also have a long-lasting effect because through the gathering of resources that makes it possible to complete the process prepares the corporation to handle any issues that may appear now or in future thus saving the company the time it could use to find answers to some of the problematic occurrences. The employees and leaders at Arizona, however, must be keen on how they apply analytics to avoid errors that may disrupt the entire exercise or lead to misleading findings.











Works Cited

Agarwal, Shipra and Garg Ashish. “The Importance of Communication within Organizations: A Research on Two Hotels in Uttarakhand.” IOSR Journal of Business and Management, vol. 3, no. 2, 2012, pp. 40-49.

Christensen, Chris. Solving Organizational Problems: A Proven method for groups to Permanently Resolve Difficult, Complex, and persistent Problems. AuthorHouse, 2012.

Delfmann, Werner, Albers Sascha, and Gehring Martin. “The Impact of Electronic Commerce on logistics Service Providers.” International Journal of Physical             Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 32, no. 3, 2002, pp. 203-222.

Heylighen, Francis. “A Cognitive-Systematic Reconstruction of Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization.” Behavioral Science, vol. 37, no. 1, 1992, pp. 39-58.

Nagaitis, Mark. “Behavioral Analytics: The why and how of E-Shopping.” Ecommerce Times, March 12, 2008, Accessed 19 December 2017

Omisore, Bernard and Abiodun Ashimi. “Organizational Conflicts: Causes, effects and Remedies.” International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, vol. 3, no. 6, 2014, pp. 118-137.

Peterson-Withorn, Chase. “Inside Arizona Iced Tea: How Don Vultaggio Beat Snapple, became a Billionaire and Nearly Lost it All.” Forbes, October 17, 2017, Accessed 19 December 2017

West, Michael. Effective Teamwork: Practical Lessons from Organization Research. John Wiley & Sons, 2012.























Outsourcing of Information Technology Activities

Information technology (IT) has pervaded business and organisations because of the many benefits it renders to easing business processes. Advancements in information and communication technologies have facilitated the development of innovative approaches of running business activities and processes in organisations with come on the routine and regular aspects of a business being automated. However, in many cases information technology is deployed as a tool of facilitating business processes rather than a core activity that generates direct revenues. As such, outsourcing of information technology activities and services has been used by many business enterprises, which do not consider IT as a core component of their business operations. According to a survey conducted by Delloitte (2014) in 2014, technological innovations such as business process as a service (BPAS), enhanced mobility, bit data and cloud computing were changing the information technology outsourcing environment with there being an increasing demand for service in real time and content of high quality.

Outsourcing is concept involving the involvement of third parties to perform business activities on behalf of an organisation, which does not consider the outsourced processes and activities to be core to its operations. Various models of outsourcing exist depending with the remoteness of the third party provider of outsourced activities. The main outsourcing models used include onshoring, nearshoring and offshoring (Dolgui & Proth 2013). Other information technology outsourcing models include staff augmentation, project-based outsourcing, managed services, out-tasking, and dedicated development centres (DDCs). The choice of the outsourcing model depends in the nature of IT services to be outsourced, the internal information technology capabilities of the company and the level of control the company wishes to maintain with its third party provider.

The ensuing discussion focuses on outsourcing of information technology activities and processes in organisations and compares the benefits and detriments that organisations would accrue from outsourcing their IT activities with those that do not outsource such as company ‘X’. The discussion begins with explaining the reasons as to why an organisation would choose to outsource its information technology activities and why another would not choose to undertake IT outsourcing. After that, a discussion on the disks of outsourcing information technology activities and the measures that could be undertaken to mitigate such risks is undertaken.

Background on outsourcing

Outsourcing is the transfer of organizational activities that were undertaken in-house previously to a third party provider (Lee, Ching Yeung & Hong 2012). Information technology (IT) outsourcing involves the contracting of various systems or certain information technology functions to outside independent information systems vendors, who may be individuals or companies (Ali & Green 2012).

Information technology outsourcing can be categorised by the location from where the outsourced work is undertaken and thus may include onshoring, nearshoring and offshoring (Dolgui & Proth 2013). In onshoring, also known as homeshoring, a company delegates its information technology functions to a third party who is located within the same national borders. In this case, a company could decide to outsource information technology services and functions such as payroll management, web designing, information system designing, data storage, data analytics and other related processed to third party companies or individuals located in the same country (Goldschmidt & Schmieder 2017). Indeed, crowdsourcing can be perceived as a form of onshoring in which organisations seek information technology capacity available in the public (Knop & Blohm 2016). Another outsourcing arrangement known as homeshoring involves the engagement of employees in the information technology department of a company working from their residences rather than from their workplaces.

Offshoring can be perceived as the other extreme end of outsourcing because, unlike onshoring, it involved the engagement of third parties who are located at great geographical distance from the company commissioning the outsourcing. In this case, the third party provider may be located in a different time zone, which in this case would be 5 or more hours away from the outsourcing company. For instance, a company in the United States may outsource its customer care services to a third party provider in Asia, which is located at the opposite end of the world and is at a different time zone. Moreover, nearshoring also known as nearshore outsourcing resembles offshoring because it involves the engagement of a third party who is located beyond the national border only that in this case, the service provider located in a country that is close to that of the outsourcing company (Oshri, Kotlarsky & Willcocks 2015). For instance, an organisation located in the United Kingdom or Germany could outsource web designing to France or Poland respectively, which are countries located in Western Europe and probably with little difference in time zone if not in the same time zone. Some companies may choose to engage in multisourcing in which they combine any of the three models of outsourcing models to outsource different function of their information technology. Indeed, the choice of the outsourcing model to be employed is dependent on and informed by the advantages to be derived by the outsourcing company.

Other models of information technology outsourcing are based on the relationship between the third party information technology provider and the outsourcing client. In this case, the client-vendor relationship can be categorised as staff augmentation, project-based outsourcing, managed services, out-tasking, and dedicated development centres (DDCs) (Raassens, Wuyts & Geyskens 2012). In the staff augmentation approach, a third party provider provides information technology specialists to the outsourcing client to design, develop and implement a new information system or to train the in-house information technology employees on certain specific issues related to their information technology functions. The workers that have been seconded by the third party provider remain under the management of their employer. Although such employees may be supervised by the outsourcing client, they are not engaged as full time employees by the outsourcing client. In addition, in project-based outsourcing, unlike in workforce augmentation in which the third party fills in skill gaps existing in the information technology department of the client, the third party provides expertise that is exclusive and lacking in the client’s organisation (Sparrow 2012). In this case, the information technology function that has been outsourced does not constitute the core function of the client company and therefore it does not interfere with the daily running of business therein. For instance, a restaurant in the United Kingdom may approach an application development company in Ukraine to develop a food ordering and delivery application. The app developer undertakes the task without interference from the client apart from the initial specifications provided at the start of the project.  Alternatively, a company may locate an information technology development centre in a remote location or country away from its company premises. However, the third party is tasked with the recruitment and hiring of the staff to run the dedicated development centre on behalf of the client company. As such, these workforce works directly with the management of the client company while being on the payroll of the third party provider. The level of expertise in an organisation, the closeness of the information technology function to the core activities of the company and the amount of resources the client wishes to sink into the information technology function dictate the choice of outsourcing models to be employed (Oshri, Kotlarsky & Willcocks 2015).

Various studies has exhibited the growth trend of outsourcing of information technology functions and provided reasons for such trends. For instance, Chang and Gurbaxani (2012) observed that an increasing number of organizations that had outsourced some or all of their information technology functions from external third party service providers had characterized the last twenty years, which was in sharp contrast with internal delivery of the same services as was the case previously. This was an indication that there was an increasing realization that information technology could only deliver benefits to the organization when organizations undertook to restructure the production of information technology services. This view was echoed by Gorla and Somers (2014), who observed that in the traditional scene, the products of information systems (IS) has been internally by in-house information systems departments of organisations.  However, with outsourcing of information systems becoming an alternate or complementary mechanism for delivery of information technology services, information technology had experienced growth of 14 % annually with the information technology services market being valued at 746 billion dollars (Gorla & Somers 2014). Indeed, Ravishankar, Pan and Myers (2013) have attributed the popularity of information technology offshoring to the low operational costs in developing countries and emerging economies. In addition, the authors observed that the lowering of the costs of telecommunications, the liberalization policies of governments, world scale logistics, low costs for air travel, and the presence of large pools of English-speaking engineering graduates that are located in diverse countries globally had contributed to the success of the offshoring phenomenon in information technology functions and services. Specifically, they noted that the number of Indian IT services vendor organizations has become established and grown impressively in the last twenty years or so, which was an indication of the growing trend of information technology outsourcing (Malik, Sinha & Blumenfeld 2012). However, there were indications that outsourcing trend could be reversed in future with some indications of onshoring previously offshored tasks in information technology becoming increasingly evident.  According to Deloitte (2014) some companies has become dissatisfied by the performance of their outsourced activities coupled with poor experiences with third party providers and the elusiveness of the cost targets that outsourcing was aimed at achieving in the first place.

Reasons why an organization would outsource its information technology activities

With outsourcing of information technologies having taken root in many firms, there is evidence that it benefits firms in various ways, thus informing the prevalence of outsourcing in many organisations. However, according to McCarthy, Silvestre and Kietzmann (2013), the success of an outsourcing undertaking was dependent on the congruence between capability fit and information asymmetry, which should lead to four outsourcing contexts including opaque outsourcing, symbiotic outsourcing, discordant outsourcing and inconsistent outsourcing. In addition, the standardization of many business processes has facilitated outsourcing strategies (Schäfermeyer, Rosenkranz & Holten 2012). With this in mind, the reasons why organizations outsource their information technology activities can be broadly categorized as financial reasons, business reasons, technical reasons and industry environment reasons.

Financial reasons

Outsourcing renders financial benefits to organizations in various ways, which company X would not gain. First, an organisation may choose to outsource some or all its information technology activities to reduce operating costs. It has been established the external information technology providers can undertake information technology services at a lower cost than that in an internal information technology department in an organisation. The rational of this thinking is underpinned in the transaction cost in theory in which Aubert and others (2012) observed that the transaction cost theory (TCT) had been and influencer ot outsourcing decisions in various because the choice of the governance structure depended on transaction costs and production costs. While transactional costs were related to the search for suppliers, negotiating contracts, monitoring and evaluating performance, which incurred costs that firms sought to minimise, production costs were intrinsic to the company’s operations. Nonetheless, it transaction costs are too high, internalisation of business activities was recommended rather than outsourcing. In this case, uncertainty, asset specificity and frequency are characteristics that could explain the magnitude of transaction costs. Therefore, transaction costs are unavoidable because information technology systems are often capital-intensive undertakings requiring financial investments in acquiring information technology infrastructure, employing skilled information technology professionals on a permanent basis, and regularly updating information technology systems. Second, outsourcing of information technology activities can facilitate the improvement of cost control in an organisation. Because of enhanced focus on information technology provided by third party providers, they are able to operate overheads that are much leaner compared to those of an organisation that does not specialise in providing information technology services. For instance, an information technology provider may be operating in a location from where it can access skilled labour pools, and information technology equipment and infrastructure at costs that are lower compared to the outsourcing organisation. Third, outsourcing can deliver cash infusions to an organisation that has information technology assets. In this case, an organisation may have information technology equipment and systems, which are holding much of the company’s capital but do not deliver equivalent value to the business. As such, the company could decide to unlock the finances held by such investments with the savings made from outsourcing the replaced services from the equipment being directed to core functions and activities at the firm. Fourth, outsourcing can help an organisation restructure its information technology budget. Outsourcing involves contracts whose expenditure remains stable and known in the long term as such contracts are usually in force for a long period. Therefore, the predictability of expenditure provided by the outsourcing model facilitates the making of accurate budgets

Business reasons

Many organisations outsource their information technology activities because it makes business sense. This may explain why outsourcing success is closely related to the quality of information technology governance. According to Ali and Green (2012) ineffective information technology governance may affect organizations negatively because of inaccuracy of the information quality, inefficiency of operating costs, runaway costs due to under specifications and budget overruns associated with information technology projects, the demise of information technology departments and loss of competitiveness by the organisation. Therefore, the strategy of using thirds parties for undertaking some of the information technology functions has been informed by the need to address these problems. In addition, Jain and Thietart (2013) introduced the idea of knowledge-based transaction costs (KTC), which were often ignored by organisations and which could be influenced the success of outsourcing because they were costs related to transfer of knowledge during the outsourcing of information technology processes and functions from a firm to a to a contractual partner. In this case, a company that outsources its information technology activities is able to focus on its core competencies while company X, which does not outsource wastes organisational resources on issues in which it may not have sufficient competencies in and thus lacks business focus. Core competencies are a source of competitive advantage as explained by the core competencies theory (Vaxevanou & Konstantopoulos 2015). Therefore, maintaining a focus on the competencies that the company has developed over time helps the company maximise on its resources in a strategic direction that ensures that the company enjoys exemplary performance and attains business and organisational success (Murphy et al. 2012). In addition, outsourcing may help a company manage its business risks by spreading them through sharing them with other third party service providers. Indeed, business activities that are non-core to a company may present risks because the company may have limited capabilities and competencies in handling such activities. This may take a toll on the resources of the company, which are usually in scarcity and need to be well manages to ensure that they deliver maximum returns with leas risks to the performance of the organisation.

Moreover, the outsourcing company may be able to render round the clock services to clients. This is common with outsourced services that are facilitated by information technology such as customer service in which companies in the United States and Europe engage third party providers located across the globe in different time zones such as India and the Philippines (Manning, Larsen & Bharati 2015). This way such companies are able to ensure that their customers of continuous service, which in turn increases customer loyalty while helping the company gain presence in the offshore location as well.

Technical reasons

The technical benefits that are accrued from outsourcing of information technology activities include the improvement of technical services, maintaining the focus of internal staff dealing with information technology activities on core activities, access to technical talent, and access to new technologies.

First, outsourcing delivers improved technical services associated with information technology activities because it allows a third party provider to handle the information technology activities that it has competence in and has well developed expertise in as well. As such, by allowing a competent provider to handle information technology issues, a company is able to benefit from the improved delivery of the technical services of information technology by a competent provider. Second, outsourcing enables a company to redeploy its information technology staff into other activities that make up the core business of the company. This is particularly useful when a company has few information technology staff or staff that have limited or selected expertise in some information technology aspects needed by the company. As such, the company can retain staff in the information technology department that oversees the internal information technology environment while enabling the organisation to build its capacity in information technology without losing the benefits accrued from advanced information technology solutions. Third, outsourcing can facilitate the access to technical talent without necessarily having to hire skilled information technology staff directly. Since, third party providers have highly skilled information technology personnel; this talent is accessible to a company that engages the provider thus enabling a company to benefit from their expertise without necessarily being directly involved with their management or human resource issues. Fourth, outsourcing enables a company to access to new technologies through the engagement of a dedicated information technology provider. Usually, information technology providers have to keep abreast the latest developments in information technology developments in order to provide the latest and most advanced information technology services and solutions (Chae, Koh & Prybutok 2014). They invest their resources to acquire the latest information technology equipment, develop advanced information technology solutions and adhere to the best information technology practices.

Industry environment

The trends in the industry may exert pressure on a company to undertake outsourcing of its information technology services and activities. Indeed, industry and economic trends may be beyond the control of the organisation yet they influence outsourcing decisions. The publicity given to the economic trends and other factors in a given industry may make outsourcing appear attractive or the accepted practice at a given time thus encouraging a company to engage in outsourcing of its information technology activities.

In addition, information technology vendors may exert pressure on organisations to opt for outsourcing of their information technology services because of the benefits they would gain from by making such decisions. Indeed, third party service providers compete viciously among themselves and engage in aggressive marketing activities to convince companies to engage them.

Risks of outsourcing and mitigation measures

Information technology outsourcing presents some risks that company X should be aware of, which may justify its reasons for not engaging in the practice. According to Gorla and Somers (2014), the problems presented by information technology outsourcing include slow implementation of information technology functions by the information technology service provider, delayed delivery of client data, lack of commitment by the IT vendor and degradation if information technology services. These problems present various risks that could undermine the performance of company X.


Outsourcing of information technology activities presents various risk to the outsourcing organisation, risks that company X, which does not outsource, is able avoid. Firstly, considering that information technology functions are varied and extensive in an organisation, outsourcing some of such functions may be difficult because they may be at the core of the business operations of a company. For instance, if company X relies on innovations of its services and products, then outsourcing of information technology function may erode the company’s ability to innovate, which in turn could erode the competitive advantage of company X. Indeed, according to Aubert and others (2012) the inability to control all the interdependent components involved in information technology functions can be limited by outsourcing, in turn, limiting the innovative capacity of the firm, considering that outsourcing it is an interdependent activity. Secondly, an organisation that outsources its information technology activities risks losing control over its most valuable information and the staff that handle such information. As such, company X would have to contend with rigid and inflexible client-vendor contracts, which are often long-term contracts (Sursala 2012). Sometimes company X would have to cancel such contracts with its third party providers if such providers were to fail to meet the expectations expected from the outsourcing of the said information technology functions (Mani, Barua & Whinston 2012). This situation would be worsened in the case of the dedicated development centre as an outsourcing model because company X runs the risk of losing all its control in the facility if the third party vendor was to acquire the unit by buying it off from the outsourcing company. An additional but related risk would be the poaching of information technology technicians who have been trained by the outsourcing arrangement, thus eroding the technical capacity of the company even after making investments in information technology capacity building. Thirdly, outsourcing presents the risk of having an organization becoming locked-in by a third party provider through stringent long-term exclusivity contracts. Locking in denies the company an opportunity to be independent in the manner it structures its information technology functions or in choosing another third party provider who would best deliver the expected information technology functions. This is because the client-vendor contracts may not have an exit close that would allow company X to exit in the short term suppose it became unsatisfied by the performance of one information technology provider (Keramati, Samadi & Nazari-Shirkouhi 2013). Fourth, outsourcing may reduce the morale of the staff within an organisation who may be concerned of being declared redundant because of the engagement of an external information technology provider. In addition, the threat of having automation replace human involvement in some processes within an organisation through information technology outsourcing may make employees jittery about the security of their employment and thus take a toll on their level of motivation and even loyalty to the company. Fifth, outsourcing presents the risk of loss of organisational trust by the employees within the firm seeking to offshore its information technology functions. In this case, company X would have to contend with the risk of being seen to have breached the employer-employee relationship because the employees therein would be uncertain about their jobs in future and would remain wondering whether their jobs would be next on the line to being outsourced. Loss of such organisational trust has a negative effect on the output and performance of employees. Moreover, lost of trust and loyalty in the organisation would lead to turnover of employees, thus eroding the human resource of the company. Sixth, sometimes the benefits expected from outsourcing of the information technology functions may not be realised because of the increase in transactional costs emanating from engaging an external third party provider. In many cases, the accounting system to be employed to account for the transactional cost savings is often not accommodated in the outsourcing arrangement. Indeed, the estimates of the cost of outsourcing may be inaccurate, and the making of the make-or-buy decisions would be difficult if there is absence of sufficient and accurate information to inform such decisions. Other hidden costs that would negate the cost effectiveness of the outsourcing model is the travel expenses associated with the movement to offshore locations which may be far-flung from the country of the outsourcing company. In addition, the involvement of a third party provider who is located at a different time zone may present communication inconvenience due to the large time differences between the client and the third party provider, thus presenting other hidden costs of outsourcing. Worse still, the third party provider may be located in a country whose national culture is starkly different from that of the outsourcing company. In this case managerial incompatibility between the client and the provider, which may be worsened by a language barrier is a risk to which that company X should be alive, which in turn should discourage it from engaging in offshoring especially. In the same respect, resolution of conflicts or problems would be a lengthy and costly undertaking and turnaround times would end up being slower than expected, eroding the cost effectiveness of the outsourcing model even further.

Mitigation of risks

Reduction and mitigation of risks associated with outsourcing of information technology can be achieved through certain prudent actions that are undertaken either before or during the outsourcing process. In this case, company X should engage in an internal audit of its information technology functions to identify whether outsourcing would be a viable solution, lacking which the company should engage in upgrading its in-house information technology capabilities and capacities. From another perspective, before a company engages a third party information technology provider, an analysis of what is to be outsourced and a corresponding risk assessment should be undertaken by the company. That way, an informed decision that is guided by evidence would be made from such an analysis. In addition, the company should evaluate its internal information technology capabilities and undertake a cost benefit analysis of undertaking outsourcing of information technology activities (Lee, Ching & Hong 2012). In this case, the company should be careful to include all the hidden costs associated with outsourcing in both the short-term and the long-term to ensure that there are no surprise costs that would emerge later into the outsourcing engagement after the client-provider contract has been signed. Further, the company should evaluate the model of outsourcing that best suits its information technology activities and the location of the service providers as well. Sometimes, depending on the cultural competence of the company, the choice of how far or culturally different the third party provider is becomes a matter to be considered. For companies with little experience with far-flung information technology providers, onshoring would be the preferable option to offshoring.


Outsourcing of information technology functions has been facilitated by advancements in information and communication technologies, labour mobility and liberal business regulations that have occurred in the last two decades. With many companies in the United States and Europe instigating the trend of outsourcing of information technology to developing and emerging economies of South America and Asia, the number of outsourced information technology has increased in the last two decades. Indeed the various benefits that outsourcing would provide a company include lowering of operational costs, enabling a company to focus on its core activities by outsourcing non-core information technology functions, and by enabling companies to enter into new markets, which would further their expansion strategies. However, outsourcing has various disadvantages such as eroding the ability of a company to control all its functions including the insecurity associated with information and valuable data, stifling the innovation capacity of a firm, and the elevation of the costs of operation from hidden costs associated with incompatible cultures and time zones (Nassimbeni, Sartor & Dus 2012).

Company X would therefore need to consider the risks of engaging in outsourcing of its information technology functions emanating from difficulty in making decisions as to which information technology functions to outsource, the possibility of a high staff turnover and loss of operational autonomy. However, if the company were to consider engaging in outsourcing its information technology functions, it should be able to undertake a comprehensive internal audit of its capabilities vis-a-vis its short and long-term strategies. In addition, the company should unearth the possible hidden costs that would negate the cost effectiveness of outsourcing, and undertake due diligence on the third party provider to guarantee provision of quality service.



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Health and Safety Laws and Practices in the Oil and Gas Sector

Health and Safety Laws and Practices in the Oil and Gas Sector


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Health and Safety Laws and Practices in the Oil and Gas Sector


Fossil fuels have remained to be a significant component of the international energy sector in the contemporary world today. In an effort at meeting the increasing demand for oil and gas in the globe, a considerable amount of production is carried out in fields that are technically challenging and which cost more to extract than in the past. In the recent times, there has been a rise in the number of offshore sites that are located in the deep waters and extraction sites in the subarctic and Polar Regions and other areas that were considered inaccessible in the past. Unfortunately, a number of serious accidents have occurred in the process of producing oil and gas, which has massive economic impacts and damage to the reputation of the companies involved. Due to the surging need for fossil fuels in the modern world, there is need to consider the challenges in the industry and the finest practice aimed at addressing them through the health and safety laws in the oil and gas sector.

Health and Safety Laws and Practices at the International Level

The integrity of the assets and equipment used in the oil and gas industry is a fundamental safety challenge at the international level. There are four categories that are used in determining the extent of destruction caused by accidents that occur during oil and gas extraction. These classifications include accidents, hazardous incidents, insignificant events, and near misses. According to Mearns and Yule (2009), ‘accidents’ is a term that denotes any hazardous situations that might trigger an event that may result in fatalities and severe injuries. Hazardous incidents are situations which have not fully developed into accidents but which result in a low level of damage, cause minor health injuries to the personnel involved, and require repairs to the damage caused on drilling equipment. Insignificant events are hazardous situations which have very minor consequences as no damages or repairs are required to deal with the situation. Near misses are the event that could or might have easily escalated into accidents even though there was no damage that occurred.

In most cases, the safety challenges that occur in the oil and gas industry emerge due to the use of old equipment. Whenever the assets used in the drilling process are forced to continue functioning beyond their set design life, they are bound to cause a lot of safety concerns. In Safety of offshore oil and gas operations: Lessons from past accident analysis, Christou and Kanstatinidou (2012) argue that there is a considerable correlation between the platform age and the increased rates of accidents in an oil rig. The study indicates that most of the assets that are used in extracting oil and gas in various regions of the world today are almost obsolete, which raises the risk of serious accidents and incidents in the industry. The personnel working in the industry have increasingly voiced their concern about the condition of the aging platforms, which have caused numerous accidents in oil rigs located throughout the world. Dittrick (2011) states that there have been increased concerns from workers about the condition of offshore installations and platforms in the United Kingdom that are more than thirty years old while they were initially meant to serve for only 15 to 20 years. Poor maintenance of some of these assets is entirely to blame for the high number of accidents that occur in the oil rigs, including absence of routine maintenance activities and underserviced firefighting equipment. In most cases, the oil companies often justify the poor condition of their assets by claiming that the fundamental fabric and systems in the oil and gas plant are not critical to the safety of their personnel and, hence, the lower degree of integrity (Dittrick, 2011). Thus, a lack of understanding about the importance of asset integrity often results in most of the serious accidents and incidents that occur in the industry.

The International Labor Organization provides the minimum legal framework that is used in determining the health and safety practices in the oil and gas sector. Its constitution provides the basic principles that are aimed at ensuring that all personnel that are employed in the sector are protected from illnesses, diseases, and any other injuries that might arise from their profession (ILO, 2015). The International Labor Organization (ILO) has occupational safety and health instruments that promote multilateral collective efforts by the employees, employers, and the government in establishing, implementing, and perpetually strengthening a precautionary safety and health culture in the energy industry. Multilateralism is an instrumental element for the establishment of an effective occupational safety and health regime within the industry. In Norway, multilateralism led to the development of the hydrocarbon development project that seeks to determine the inclinations in the risk level in the oil and gas industry (Blanchard, 2014). The creation of such processes is instrumental in in promoting the role of national governments in the management of occupational health and safety in the energy sector, particularly in the extraction of fossil fuels. Thus, the ILO health and safety standards have a huge influence in promoting the interdependence and interactive nature of various players in the industry so as to improve the safety and wellbeing of all those employed in the sector.

Regulations on safety and health standards within the oil and gas industry provide fundamental tools for multilateral efforts in ensuring maximum protection and health at work.  The ILO standards outlined in ILO Conventions, Recommendations, and Protocol serve as the driving force behind ensuring that all the proper instruments that are aimed at preventing or managing personnel exposure to occupational hazards and other methods aimed at achieving this goal are achieved (ILO, 2015). The 15 ILO Conventions are lawfully binding international treaties which can be ratified by its member states while the 17 ILO Recommendations are regarded as non-binding guiding principles that might be adopted by all nations (ILO, 2015). The ILO Conventions outline the basic principles that can be implemented by the international community, and which are supplemented by the Recommendations that offer more detailed guidelines on their application. Since they are created by government representatives, employers, and employees, the Conventions are easily ratified and adopted as laws and practices by numerous countries. In most cases, they are accompanied by a code of practice which offers technical guidance without necessarily creating any binding obligations. The Conventions offer guidelines on the establishment of administrative, legal, and practical frameworks and processes that are aimed at identifying, controlling, or eliminating any risks that might arise from ambient factors (ILO, 2015). They also advocate for the surveillance of personnel health and their working environment as well as the need to provide the appropriate training and information to all personnel. However, while the ILO Conventions cover fundamental elements pertaining to the health and wellbeing of employees in the oil and gas industry, they fail to address other ambient factors including shift work, job intensification, stress, and repetitive work. Furthermore, the fact that these provisions are not meant to replace other regulations or national laws means that they can discourage other more competent authorities from embracing better standards that will offer better safety and health standards to the employees. Therefore, while the ILO has played an important role in providing standard regulations and guidelines regarding occupational safety and health in the oil and gas industry, there is still need for the institution of strict national regulations.

Health and Safety Laws and Practices in the US

In the recent times, the reputation of the US oil and gas industry had been tainted by numerous cases of fatal accidents. In August 2012, there was an explosion at the Amuay Oil Refinery which resulted in 48 fatalities and 151 injuries. In 2010, an explosion at an oil rig in the Deepwater Horizon resulted in the death of 11 personnel and the injury of 16 others (Raufflet, Cruz, & Bres, 2014). Following the explosion, the Deepwater Horizon rig burnt down and sunk, triggering a massive oil spill off the shore of the Gulf of Mexico, which is regarded as the most prevalent environmental disaster in the history of the United States and the biggest unintentional marine oil spill in the world (Raufflet, Cruz, & Bres, 2014). A report by the NORA Oil and Gas Extraction Council indicates that more than 640 workers in the US oil and gas sector were fatally injured in the workplace between 2003 and 2008 (NORA, 2011). The high rate of occupational fatality and death was caused by personnel being hit by equipment and objects at the workplace and highway crashes. Given the alarmingly high instances of workplace injury in oil rigs located in the United States and other parts of the world, it is important to consider the system of occupational safety and health in the country that seeks to integrate the safety and health concerns of all employees in the oil and gas industry into a regular routine.

Employees in the American oil and gas sector are susceptible to numerous safety and injury hazards that often put their lives and wellbeing at risk. Among the most common safety and injury cases are motor vehicle accidents that are triggered by the fact that most of the roads leading to the drilling sites lack safety feature such as firm shoulders and proper lighting. Furthermore, most of the drivers are often fatigue due to driving long distances and working exceedingly long hours in order to meet the deadlines set by their employers (Raufflet, Cruz, & Bres, 2014). Contact injuries are also a common occurrence that are reported following the employees being entangled, crushed, or stuck by various tools and equipment at the workplace. The fact that the oil rig is characterized by highly combustible hydrocarbons makes them susceptible to fire and explosions. Individuals involved in the drilling and extraction of oil and gases continuously face the risk of fire and explosion due to the ignition of flammable gases. During the extraction process, flammable vapors and gases are released from the wells, production equipment, and trucks, and whose ignition can cause static and serious explosions that might cause death and serious injuries (Mearns & Yule, 2009). At the same time, there are also numerous reported cases of slips and falls that occur due to the fact that the employees are often required to work at elevated and uneven surfaces without proper fall protection systems. Additionally, those employed in this industry are frequently exposed to toxic chemical substances, biological hazards, and physical threats that result in various illnesses and conditions, including cancer, trauma disorders, spinal injuries, hearing losses, sleep deprivation, and stress (OSHA, 2017). Given the surging health and safety risks, the US federal government has embraced numerous laws, regulations, and practices aimed at protecting those working in the oil and gas industry.

The OSHA Act of 1970 provides the basic guidelines governing the safety and health of all employees in the United States. Section 5 of the Act states that all employers are required to provide their employee with a safe working environment that is free from hazards that might cause serious physical injuries or death to the employees (OSHA, 2015). The employers are also required to comply with all the safety and health standards that are outlined in the Act. At the same time, Section 5 of the OSHA Act requires all employees to comply with all the orders, rules, and regulations on occupational safety and health that are pertinent to their activities and conduct at the workplace. The primary objective of the OSHA Act is to establish familiar standards in all American industries.

Given the use of various forms of equipment and materials in the oil and gas industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), under the US Department of Labor, recognizes the need for controlling hazards so as to prevent injuries and death through vehicle collisions, falls, and explosions and fires among other safety and health issues. To prevent vehicle collisions, OSHA provides Motor Vehicle Safety and Work Zone Traffic Safety Standards that are all aimed at addressing and controlling hazards that are associated with motor vehicles. OSHA also recognizes that three out of every five fatalities that occur in the extraction of oil and gas result from personnel being caught in or struck by falling equipment, moving vehicles, or lines with an exceedingly high amount of pressure. To prevent such incidences, the organization offers numerous guidelines on recognizing and preventing such hazards, including Crane, Derrick, and Hoist Safety (OSHA, 2017). It also provides standards that are applicable to eye and face protection, guarding of machines and machinery, handling of hazardous materials, and general requirements for all machines and power-transmission apparatus. To prevent the likelihood of fire and explosion during the extraction of oil and gas, OSHA provides fundamental guidelines on handling and storage of flammable liquids and petroleum gases, prevention of blowout during the drilling process, safety of explosives in the oilfields, and identification of hot work surfaces. Through such guidelines, OSHA seeks to protect the safety and health of all those working in the oil and gas industry.

The risk management process has been embraced as a crucial means of preventing work related illnesses and injury in the oil and gas sector. The practice involves identifying, evaluating and prioritizing, and instituting preventive measures that are aimed at controlling the risks. In most cases, this process is applicable in the job safety analysis in which specific jobs, responsibilities, and processes are systematically evaluated in order to reduce or eradicate the risks and hazards that would otherwise cause injury and illness to the personnel (Raufflet, Cruz, & Bres, 2014). The government has also enforced the need for continuous inspections and audits at the workplace in order to ensure that any potential health and safety hazard is caught in time. Through such guidelines, the government has been able to promote the adoption of numerous safety measures at all operational sites, ensured that workers are well-informed and adhere to constant health and safety processes, occasional site inspections are carried out to ensure that the permits and equipment are up to date, and that all workers are informed about the importance of adhering to the set procedures and action plans for their own safety and wellbeing.




While there is increased need for fossil fuels in the contemporary world, the health and safety concerns experienced in the oil and gas industry can only be addressed through the implementation of fundamental health and safety laws. At the international scene, the International Labor Organization health and safety standards have a significant influence in promoting the interdependence and multifaceted platform through which various players in the industry come together to implement measures aimed at improved the safety and wellbeing of all those employed in the sector. In the United States, the OSHA Act continues to provide fundamental guidelines that are aimed at identifying and preventing health and safety hazards during the extraction of underground oil and gas resources in the country. The implementation of all these laws and guidelines has been instrumental in ensuring the safety of all those working in the industry.















Blanchard, A. (2014). Harmful Routines: Uncertainty in science and conflicting views on routine petroleum operations in Norway.  Marine Policy, 43(1), 313−320.

Christou, M., & Konstantinidou, M. (2012). Safety of offshore oil and gas operations: Lessons from past accident analysis: Ensuring EU hydrocarbon supply through better control of major hazards. Brussels: European Commission.

Dittrick, P. (2011). Industry seeks new offshore rigs, longer onshore laterals in shale. Oil & Gas Journal, 2(1), 16–17.

International Labor Organization. (2015). Occupational safety and health in the oil and gas production and oil refining sector. Retrieved from–en/index.htm

Mearns, K., & Yule, S. (2009). The role of national culture in determining safety performance: Challenges for the global oil and gas industry. Safety Science47(6), 777-785.

NORA. (2011). National Oil and Gas Extraction Agenda. Retrieved from

OSHA. (2017). Safety Hazards Associated with Oil and Gas Extraction Activities. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved from

Raufflet, E., Cruz, L. B., & Bres, L. (2014). An assessment of corporate social responsibility practices in the mining and oil and gas industries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 84(1), 256-270.

Confucianism and Legalism

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Confucianism and Legalism


Confucianism is the main imperative theory from the Warring States Period. It embraces the standards of manners, empathy, and honesty, and maintains steadfastness, absolution, and the teaching of morality. Confucian political hypothesis focuses on the significance of equity and sympathy. There is additionally a critical assortment of work on morals and self-development. Confucius focused on the significance of instruction as the establishment of a steady and prosperous country. Confucius had faith in managing with access to training, which would enable every individual in the nation to end up good and upright. Confucianism likewise advocates governing the nation by manners and persuading individuals by righteousness. Legalism is spoken to by Han Fei (Han Feizi — author). The primary scholarly work is the Han Feizi. Legalism is the third vital rationality from the Warring States Period. It focuses on the significance of decision the nation by law, paying little heed to one’s relationship or position. It underlines strict consistence with the law. Legalism’s perspective of financial aspects is to compensate horticulture, however control business. Its political tenets incorporate administering the nation with strict and barbarous laws dictatorially. With respect to training, it is narrow minded of every other regulation and rationalities — one should just take after the laws and lessons from government authorities. Legalism gives an activity intend to building up a dictatorial administration. Both Confucianism and legalism were instrumental in shaping the administration of a nation.


In the historical backdrop of Imperial China, the issue of the expert of rulers has been worked out in connection to the predominant theories of their circumstances. The longest, most persuasive, and persevering of these is Confucianism. The reasoning and the predominant meaning in which it requests righteousness and obligation from a ruler has not generally been accepted. The leaders in this case are of a totalitarian nature and have now and again been uprooted by the school of thought known as Legalism (Zhou 616). Prominently the Legalist trusted that the general population existed for the state and its ruler while the Confucians trusted that the state and its ruler existed for the general population”. It is necessary to make examination and differentiation of the thoughts of the two schools and the manner that can be used to represent them. Confucius was separated from contemporary and later savants, the first and boss supporter of the school of thought known as Confucianism.

Confucius set forth a moral framework in which amicability was established upon the correct working of five key connections Father-child obedient devotion Ruler-subject dependability Brother-sibling charitableness Husband-spouse love and dutifulness Friend-companion reliability. The “Command of Heaven” was an idea that had its premise in the relationship ruler-subject. It was utilized by numerous students of history as a way of clarifying the fall and ascent of Dynasties as being liable to the will of Heaven, based n the direct of the ruler, who was the child of Heaven (Liu 124). The thought was as per the following ruler cannot depend upon military and political power alone to keep up his management and effective control. In the event that he dismisses the correct relationship to Heaven and to his relations, he may lose the Mandate of Heaven and be ousted r meet annihilation in fight. One essential element of Confucian thoughts n how to represent was the less dynamic, more profound and custom part of the ruler, which was communicated in maybe its most radical frame.

Confucianism’s kindness, Legalism is a Chinese theory of classical assent that focuses on the requirement for arrangements most importantly other human needs. The political instruction created during the severe years of the 4th Century BCE. The Legalists believed that administration could transform into a science if leaders were not deluded by spiritual, unimaginable standards, for instance, conference and humankind. Within the same dimension, it was important for Confucianism to relate to venerations of ancestors belonging to an individual. On the other hand, legalism centered on harnessing energy through strict ad clear laws. In the standpoint of the Legalists, efforts to enhance the human condition by respectable case, instruction, and moral decrees were futile (He 645). Instead, the general inhabitants required a solid administration and a deliberately conceived system of law, alongside a checking power that would severely and unbiased authorize these standards and refuse brutally even the slightest infractions. The Ch’in originator constructed his lead in light of these totalitarian codes, and had firm expectations that his administration would continue for eternity.

The author of the Legalistic thought was Hsün Tzu. The most essential standard in his reasoning was that people are innately sinister and slanted towards immoral and egotistical conduct. Accordingly, if people are permitted to participate in their common tendencies, the outcome will be struggle and communal issue. As an answer for this issue, the old sage-rulers created ethical quality. Since profound quality does not exist in nature, the main method for influencing people to act ethically is through habituation and brutal discipline. Hsün Tzu, in a similar way as the Italian opinionated savant Machiavelli, draws a reasonable qualification between what relates to paradise and what relates to human (Zhou 619). Later thinking on legalism affected Chinese political scholars such as Tung Chung-shu, who put stock in an unbending numerical extent in social courses of action. The latter generated the thought on unification of the country while Confucianism was meant to establish order and submission to the administration.

Despite the fact that both Confucianism and Legalism called for legislative chain of command and devotion to custom, the distinction between the two thoughts and principles is that Confucianism upheld managing kindheartedly by case. It had an idealistic perspective of individual potential. (Mencius is regularly taken as a differentiating case of a Confucian savant contrary to the tenet of Hsün-tzu, which is legalistic). The distinction additionally shows up starkly in the symbolism of each reasoning works (Liu 127). The prevailing symbolism in Legalism’s works is of commandingly rectifying or inflexible contorted tree appendages with the goal that they become impeccably straight, or utilizing hot irons to consume the tree appendages so they will develop the coveted way. Similarly, view of life in Confucianism was practical as opposed to the harsh punishment derided in legalism.

The Dao itself alludes to a thing’s trademark method of presence. It helps me a bit to remember Leibniz’ monads and his standards of a pre-built up agreement. In antiquated Chinese conviction, however, Heaven has a generic requesting power where Heaven has its unrivaled Dao while each of the Ten Thousand Things has its own Dao and significance with respect to each taking after an individualization of the more noteworthy Dao of Heaven (He 646). Therefore, regardless of whether each single thing gets its Dao relies upon whether it exists or potentially acts as per the unrivaled Dao of Heaven, which is viewed as remarkable, unceasing, and without defects, simply great. Contrasts and similitude of Leibnitz’ monad logy with the Dao should be talked about in an alternate part. At the season of Confucius and past, nonetheless, in the pre-summer and Autumn and in the Warring States time frame the Dao of Heaven had been found to not win. Confucius himself was said to be on a standout mission since Heaven has requested him to wake the general population up to reestablish the Dao. In Confucianism this “most prominent educator of all”, Confucius, is thought to know Heavens will by perception and more profound comprehension.

The primary political inquiries identified with the Dao in Confucianism and Legalism is identified with the correct method for reestablishing request in the public arena. While Confucius requests that how reestablish the Dao and thusly how to accomplish the best possible method for political lead morally, in Legalism Lord Shang brings up the issue on the best way to accomplish political power and means to look after it successfully. In Confucianism, the head is by reality expected to serve the general population like the more noteworthy Dao of Heaven is serving the individual Dao of the Ten Thousand Things. What’s more, Lord Shang may be slanted to contend that this means his Legalist, too (Zhou 622). Notwithstanding, in Legalism the interests of the ruler and the interests of the general population are methodically contradicted to each other. Despite the fact that the Legalist head has the desire to improve and to arm the general population for the general population, truth is told and indisputably, as we will learn, in Legalism the general population at last serves the ruler.

Beneath, straight away, primary political thoughts that are for the most part credited to Confucius will be presented. At that point, besides, essential standards of Legalist political changes that have been executed by Shang Yang, Hanfeizi, Lü Buwei, and Li Si are condensed beneath, before looking at their principle contrasts and clarifying how a mix of them both molded the political advancement of China from that point forward and until today. In the Analects Confucius asks where the Dao is in being human. His key idea here is Ren. For a superior comprehension of the importance of Ren it may dissect the character itself. It is made out of the radical “man” and of the part “two (Liu 129). Ren does not remain solitary. Ren is a social relationship. Along these lines, being human, for Confucius, it intends to have great human connections. Independence does not bode well for Confucius in light of the fact that each specific excellence just exists and just bodes well in human connections that comprise of no less than at least two individuals. Kindheartedness, adore, knowledge, bravery, or for example humankind just bode well in human relations. Starting here of view, independence does not make any of them. Despite the fact that independence as a general idea does, in reality, exist in old China, Confucianism does not think about it as an applicable beginning stage of reflection for an agreeable society.

As a general quality, Ren takes after altruism, human greatness, and humankind – all qualities that make men honorable. The Chinese man of his word, or respectable man, used to be viewed as “honorable” while being naturally introduced to the heredity of an antiquated noble family. In any case, Confucius opposes this idea. He changed the expression “honorable man” by turning its significance to “excellent man”. Clearly despising the perpetual moral misconduct of incalculable nobles of his chance, he looked for a contrasting option to reestablish the Dao. His answer was Ren. From his perspective, just those men who act as per the general characteristics of Ren, being kind, mindful, and adoring for the general population, having accomplished knowledge and demonstrated valor, just those should be viewed as respectable (He 648). For Confucius the human characteristics of Ren are significantly more critical than one’s individual life. It may happen that an honorable man needs to acknowledge passing to fulfill Ren. As indicated by Confucius’ supporter Mencius (c. 380-289 BC) to be Ren intends to take care of business.

Human brilliance, obviously, needs a clarification. Confucius’ way to deal with clarify human greatness is an interest to reestablish the conventional estimations of the prefacing Western Zhou Dynasty (c. 1122-771 BC). His thought is a “Brilliant Age” where, for this situation, the Zhou Dynasty had once asserted the Dao while it has just been lost at Confucius’ opportunity. Hence, he excitedly gathered, considered, and reestablished traditional authoritative messages and utilized them for the artistic educational modules of his own school. Reestablishing the Dao for him implied a wary impression of the works of art and, along these lines, the conservation of culture (Zhou 633). Confucianism identified with superior individuals and their formation while legalism did not care of the principles used in governing the world at the time.

In this unique circumstance, coming back to the conventional esteems and, subsequently, accomplishing human greatness is expert by coming back to the customary ceremonies of the ancestors. Their optimal is others conscious social chain of command displayed on family connections, constituting five cardinal connections of an agreeable society with dedication, dutiful devotion, intimate commitment, persistence or resilience, and kindness at its center. Give the ruler a chance to be the ruler, the father be the father, let the child be the child (Analects 12:11). Those above recorded five characteristics of sympathy constitute herewith the Confucian fundament of the connections amongst ruler and subject, a couple, father and child, the senior and the more youthful, the trouble and the sibling (Liu 131). In this sense, even companions and neighbors ought to think about each different sibling. The, for that period, progressive thing about Confucius’ lessons was that everyone is qualified to accomplish respectability by having the correct sentiment adore for humankind and the best possible learning of exemplary nature.

The Chinese Legalist convention battles with the Confucian idea of a “Brilliant Age”. To the dread of actualizing Legalist changes in light of conceivable mainstream discontent Shang Yang gives the accompanying answer: When the wise discovers approaches to reinforce his domain he does not really need to submit to the old customs. When he knows measures to profit the general population, he ought not to stick to rituals. Shang Yang contradicted the people of old since he trusted that the two ceremonies and laws were only results of specific periods and their specific social and regular conditions (He 652). Along these lines, restricting the prefacing conventions would not be essentially off base. Rather Shang Yang and the Legalists largely built up a dynamic view upon history where it is not significant to take after the old way.

By seeing history as a progression of stages with a constant movement throughout the course of events, Chinese Legalists like Shang Yang isolated the sources of the domain into three authentic stages: the matriarchal stage, the Confucian stage, and the Legalist organize. As indicated by this thought, amid the time of high relic and the matriarchal stage individuals lived in little tribe like towns, adored their relatives and were enamored with what was their own. While amid center artifact when individuals lived in bigger town-like towns, they respected ability and were satisfied with moral goodness (Liu 133). This period Legalists alluded to just like the moderately lesser created Confucian phase of social movement. Nonetheless, in the later days of Shang Yang’s time when substantial towns, urban communities, and state-apparatuses were set up individuals needed to regard authorities. In this weltanschauung, (world-see) social conditions are given and cannot be changed. Nonetheless, the methods for activity are set around humankind.


The two schools of thought on Confucianism and legalism present an interesting look at perspectives and principles that helped in formulating the governing administrations. The debate on morals, effective belief in courtesy and good values was the hallmark of the Confucianism establishment. On the other hand, legalism was interested with unifying the Chinese nation without much emphasis on ethics, morality, or even propriety. Instead, with the support of Qin dynasty, the school of thought was a preferable solution to the warring states at the period. Administrations should look to combine effective ideas and giving that encourage values among its subjects and promoted peace and unity throughout for effective administration.


Works Cited

He, Peng H. “The difference of Chinese legalism and western legalism”. Frontiers of Law in China, vol. 6, no. 4, 2011, pp. 645-669.

Liu, Qingping L. “Emotionales in Confucianism and Daoism: a new interpretation.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy, vol. 38, no. 1, 2011, pp. 118-133.

Zhou, Haiwen. “Confucianism and the Legalism: A model of the national strategy of governance in ancient China.” Frontiers of Economics in China, vol. 6, no. 4, 2011, pp. 616-637.