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Question One

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) occurs naturally as a substance that aids neurotransmission in the brain. GHB is applicable in the hospital settings to treat a variety of conditions such as alcoholism, cataplexy, narcolepsy, as well as to regulate brain’s activities during sleep. The component influences several functions in the brain including boosting the body’s pain-suppressing system and elevating the growth hormone. Unfortunately, the use of GHB develops some concerns that require an address to avoid uncontrollable effects.

The present-day concerns surrounding the use of GHB vary in nature. Even though consuming the substance may be safe when the doctor provides guidance and supervision, the product may have severe effects when misused. The concerns revolve around the side effects that come with unlimited usage which include hallucination, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headaches, and uncontrolled sexual arousal. Other severe impacts that occur from using GHB in unsuitable forms encompass epilepsy, high blood pressure, and slowed heart rate.

Question Two

Caffeine exists as the rampantly used drug in the world because of availability. Even though consuming the product is safe when taken in low to moderate amounts, an escalating number of clinical surveys are revealing that some caffeine consumers are becoming addicted to the substance and cannot reduce their intake despite the increased awareness regarding the health issues associated with prolonged use. The element that creates dependency in caffeine becomes toxic when it accumulates in the body.

Caffeine provides antioxidants, and that can help to prevent ailments such as atherosclerosis, asthma, ulcerative colitis, obstructive pulmonary disease, type II diabetes, and ischemic perfusion. The product may also help to lower the risk of heart disease, cardiovascular risk, and cirrhosis of the liver. Finally, caffeine reduces the chances of developing the Alzheimer’s disease.

Question Three

The escalating misuse of drugs, especially among the young people compels the responsible parties to develop substance-abuse treatment programs with the hope of preventing increased use and the subsequent effects that come with prolonged use. Agencies and governments tend to take different approaches. Each group usually adopts a framework that will deliver the desired goals and objectives.

Creating the substance abuse treatment programs, nevertheless, experiences some challenges which make it problematic to help many addicts. One of the significant problems is lack of adequate support from the government and private organizations in adopting the right mechanisms. The second challenge revolves around the lack of expertise in the implementation process which derails the efforts to achieve the desired goals.

Question Four

The biomedical model of mental illness postulates that the strange psychological conditions are as a result of irregularities in the genetic structure or brain and, as such, create the need to develop chemical or medical interventions that specifically aim the biological deformity. Even though some feel that the model provides an accurate explanation of why some people acquire such abnormalities, critics think that it is likely to generate social segregation and increased stigma.  The structure, however, continues to provide valuable guidance to medical investigators who seek to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the causes of mental illness.

The biomedical model of mental illness is instrumental in the development of psychiatric drugs that help to regulate activities in the nervous system. The model guides manufacturers to know the ways of creating drugs that will specifically address brain problems. The model also gives directions on how to develop psychiatric medicines that help to solve some of the genetic malfunctions that may cause such health complications.

Question Five

People tend to buy drugs that they feel will help them to address minor health problems that they develop. The medicines sold to buyers directly with prescriptions from health professionals are called over-the-counter drugs. Over-the-counter drugs are different from prescription drugs that that may only be sold to buyers who have a valid order from a specialist.

Buyers can get a variety of over-the-counter drugs from the medical stores near them or from supermarkets that include medicines in their stock. Sellers have recorded an increased demand for sleep aids as over-the-counter drugs. Purchasers are increasingly demanding for drugs such as zolpidem, zaleplon, doxepine, and ramelteon which help people who suffer from insomnia. Pharmacists who own drug stores also witness an escalating number of buyers who request for cold and cough medicines. Buyers, however, need to seek medical assistance when the experiences milder symptoms.

Question Six

The biopsychosocial model of substance abuse treatment asserts that it is essential to consider how the psychological, social, and biological factors influence addiction. The framework proceeds to mention that the three elements may determine how a remedy process becomes successful. Individuals who seek to help addicts overcome their problem should apply the teachings of the model in handling the situation.

Considering the psychological, social, and biological factors while helping an addict overcome the problem may yield better results. The intervener, for example, may ensure that person undergoing the treatment do not experience psychological issues that may worsen their problems. Furthermore, the intervener may consider whether some biological factors influence the victim’s behavior.

Question Seven

The family systems serve a fundamental role in making substance-abuse prevention attempts successful. The family’s participation in helping members who have difficulties quitting drugs may strengthen the message that what the addict is doing is wrong and should stop. Furthermore, the family’s involvement provides all the support throughout the healing process.

The family’s participation has other benefits that may facilitate the rate at which an addict regains a stable state. The family gains a broader understanding of their member thus knowing the factors or issues that may put him or her at the risk of re-entering the habit following a successful remedy process. The family also serves as an essential part of the reformation process because one can gain helpful advice from the different persons who form the unit.

Question Eight

It would be incorrect to associate a valuable medicinal aspect such as medicine with the dark world of performance-enhancing drugs such as it happens with doping. Manufacturers develop medications to address the different health complications people form, but the individuals who engage in doping do so with the purpose of achieving their personal goals. Unfortunately, doping sometimes results in adverse health effects.

The public, nevertheless, cannot blame the manufacturers for developing drugs that can be misused by athletes. The drugs are applicable in other forms where they serve fundamental roles. It is upon the team instructors and the sport’s oversight committees to ensure that the sportspeople are free from the strength-enhancers.

Question Nine

The increased level of substance-abuse among school going children compels the learning institutions to develop prevention programs that they believe will salvage the problem. The implementers realize that some aspects of the plans work well while others experience complications that derail the efforts. The executors in this instance must identify the areas that perform well and the ones that show low performance and implement measures that would deliver a workable plan.

Several components of school-based abuse prevention plans have delivered the desired objectives in the past. Elementary schools, for instance, have successfully instilled learners with the awareness that alcohol and drug abuse is wrong and should not prevail. The Seattle Social Development Project is an excellent description of a plan that worked well in handling drug-related issues at the elementary schools in Seattle.

Question Ten

The socio-cultural perspective is becoming a suitable approach to understanding how social and cultural factors influence people. The model describes how the social and cultural factors shape a person’s mental processes and behavior. The model may also help to address some of the issues that come with drug dependence.

Different socio-cultural filters may have a significant impact on creating effective substance-abuse prevention plans. The coming together of people from different backgrounds, for example, provides the opportunity to learn how communities perceive drug use. Furthermore, the coming together informs addicts about how the broader society views substance abuse thereby creating the chance to quit.

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