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Truth in Sentencing Laws

Truth in Sentencing Laws

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Truth in Sentencing Laws

Implementation of computer technology in delivery of Justice has revolutionized the process. Technologies implemented include use of criminal databases. Criminal Justice databases are systems comprising numerous criminal records. Such systems contain DNA and biometric records such as fingerprints. When a criminal offence takes place, forensic samples are collected at the scene. Next, the samples are matched with those existing in the database. When a foolproof match is identified, a warrant for arrest is issued against the suspect (Thomas, 2007).

Electronic criminal databases were first employed in 1996 in the United States. Initially, they were used to track sex offenders .However; they have now been expanded to nearly all crimes. They are mainly operated by federal institutions such as the Department of Justice and FBI. The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) is an example. State officers such as sheriffs are also known to run local criminal databases. Advances in forensic technologies have significantly altered criminal investigations. The use of DNA has positively improved tracking of criminals. Ballistics has enabled investigators to identify possible tools employed in the criminal activity. Thus, investigators are able to know what evidence needs to be identified in order to build a case against a suspect. Fingerprints have enabled investigators to link suspects to tools of crime as well as confirming their presence at a scene (Krimsky & Simoncelli, 2011).

Therefore, it can be said that implementation of forensic and computer technology in justice has improved the system. Offenders are identified by fingerprints. The tools they used in criminal activity are identified and traced by ballistics. DNA is used to confirm their presence in a scene of crime. The legal landscape has changed considerably. Investigations now take significantly shorter periods to complete. DNA and fingerprints have also become admissible in courts of law as evidence. However, labs testing for DNA have to meet stringent regulations for evidence to be accepted. The collection of biometric data and DNA by government agencies has also come under fire. Privacy advocates claim that it is an express violation of human rights (Lazer, 2004).

 

References

Krimsky, S., & Simoncelli, T. (2011). Genetic justice: DNA data banks, criminal investigations, and civil liberties. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lazer, D. (2004). DNA and the criminal justice system: The technology of justice. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Thomas, T. (2007). Criminal records: A database for the criminal justice system and beyond. Houndmill, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

 

The Appraisal System in Cleveland Clinic

The Appraisal System in Cleveland Clinic

 

 

 

 

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The Appraisal System in Cleveland Clinic

Table of Contents

Introduction                                                                                                                            3

Key Research Questions, Objectives and Aims                                                                     3

Literature Review                                                                                                                   4

Methodology                                                                                                                          5

Data Analysis                                                                                                                          5

Discussions and Conclusions                                                                                                  6

Recommendations                                                                                                                  8

References                                                                                                                              10

Appendix                                                                                                                                11

 

Introduction

The significance of the appraisal system helps determine the top quality management practices and strategies used with evaluation of the performance of its workforce. The study of the appraisal system of the clinic is very important with its effectiveness in the United Arab Emirates as also used in the United States. This is relevant in obtaining increased productivity and performance of the organization. The study contains a comprehensive analysis of the methodology used in obtaining data and information of the appraisal system, its analysis, points of discussions and considerations with the relevant recommendations as regards the whole process. This is also centered on Abu Dhabi representative of the clinic.

This study helps highlight the need for career development of the employees of an organization. Cleveland Clinic is a medical centre of multispecialty academic basis that is regarded as one of the top most hospitals in the United States. It has branches in the United Arab Emirates. It was established in the year 1921 with the purpose of research, providing patient care and medical education. It was started by four physicians. The clinic has a unified mechanism of determining the job performance of each employee. This is further documented and evaluated according to the set standards by the management.

Key Research Questions, Objectives and Aims

The key research questions that will guide the study include, what are the evaluation mechanisms of the organization? What is the period of the assessment? What are the factors that determine the length of service in the organization and remuneration package? The aims and objectives of the research report are towards the performance management of the clinic the implementation process and their effectiveness. These include determining satisfactory levels of performance and their maintenance, gathering adequate information of the growth and development of the employees within the clinic, and understanding the level of standard procedures in matters concerning compensation, termination, evaluation and promotion. The report also seeks to understand the satisfactory levels of the employees in the working environment of the clinic, their communication channels and response towards the management.

Literature Review

In the study of appraisal systems, various sources within the management field will be used to analyze strategies, effective mechanisms, detailed performance evaluations and the potential benefits to an organization that they present. The effectiveness of performance appraisals are based on the execution of the process. According to Lawler (Lawler 2012, p.11), criticism of the process is levied on poor execution. The management of the process and system is reliant on design, business strategy and organizational setting. The leadership of the organization is tasked with ensuring of the ownership and success of the performance appraisals and management systems. Competency models are used while the accountability of the process lies squarely on the appraisal managers. This is geared at managing the organization’s talent, developing the growth of the employees while ensuring maximum productivity service delivery.

In managing of the behavior from the employees, the performance management and appraisal of an organization is critical (DeNisi 2013, p. 6). The process has multiple purposes that are dependent on the management of the organization according to its set objectives and aims. The ultimate purpose lies on performance improvement. The concepts and models applied are usually of use to any situation where the importance is gauged on the effectiveness of the assessment (Drucker, P. & Marciariello 2008, p. 9). From the information gathered by the management of the appraisal system, effective application of mechanisms to the employees represents the biggest hurdle. How the organizations respond to these determines the overall effectiveness.

Methodology

Methods of obtaining data from the clinic included using of questionnaires administered to some of the employees as a survey tool. The questionnaires were not mandatory but were utilized with the acceptance from the respondents at will. The questionnaires captured the overall opinion and appraisal mechanisms used in the Clinic. Cleveland Clinic is well renowned for its service delivery on health care, treatment, research and medical education in the world all over. The Clinic has employed thousand of workers all over the world. In Abu Dhabi, the workforce consists of the management, subordinate staff that is under various medical categories of operations and functionality.

Data analysis

  Executive Middle-management Sub-ordinate Length of service <10years Length of service >10years Average Pay in service of <10years ($) Average Pay in service of >10years ($) Employee Termination
Male 4 12 56 33 29 1500 2000 12
Female 2 8 46 21 35 1500 2000 10

 

According to the statistics from the clinic, the ratio of male to female employees was relatively equal. The number of workers who had worked in the organization for a period of ten years and above seemed to get favorably higher pay as compared to the employees who had worked for less than ten years in the organization. The organization seemed to retain the services of the employees longer while the ratio of termination is quite law. The increasing number of employees over the years in terms of additional numbers proves that the management conducts a friendly working environment for the employees.

The organization has terminated the employment of 22 employees within the duration of employment with the male numbers at 12, while the female numbers at 10. The organizational hierarchy also provides statistics on the levels of promotion within the workforce. The order of hierarchy begins from the top executive arm of the decision makers and management of the organization. They are followed by the middle management and closely by the subordinate staff members. The length of service of the employees depicts the suitability in the organization’s deployment tenure and remuneration efforts achieved based on the ten-year period and above.

Discussion and Conclusion

            The Cleveland clinic Organization is a well-structured organization with the employee environment favorable for the employees to flourish. According to the statistics gained from the questionnaires, the company engages in the promotion, termination, training and retention of the employees based on their performance evaluations. The aim of the appraisals by the organization depends on the organizational objectives and mandate of the executive management. Evaluation is carried out after every six months of active duty by the employees in various departments of service delivery. This translates to the effective changes handled across the executive, the middle management and the sub-ordinate members.

From the questionnaires obtained, majority of the workers are comfortable with the systems put in place by the organization towards heir evaluation. The organization undertakes alternative skills training objectives in view of improving the performance levels of the employees without necessarily terminating their roles. Termination of employees is based on misconduct and misappropriation of the organization’s rules and regulations. The disparity in gender roles from the management to the sub-ordinate category of workers is minimal, as the ratios seem evenly matched. This includes the length of the service period both greater and less than ten years for both genders.

The organization has objectives aimed at improvement of the service delivery to its patients in the health care systems. Promotion of the employees is based on merit according to the responses received from the questionnaires used during the data collection process. There is effective communication between the management and employees of Cleveland Clinic in the United Arab Emirates. The strategic management of evaluation and assessment is carried out by the organization’s management body, which reviews the objectives and sets targets according to the previous year’s performance and results of the operations. This is also documented and stored for reference and considerations.

Appraisals and performance management of an organization includes the activities aimed at ensuring the goals of an organization are met within the stipulated time. The systematic process uses periods of assessment on an individual employee’s performance on the job and relative productivity. It includes three methods, personnel, objective production and evaluation through judgment. The process involves the use of resources of the organization in aligning the functions towards achieving the highest standards possible. Some applications of the appraisals are geared to compensate, promote, terminate, validate and improve the performance of the employees depending on the skills, job description, service length in the organization and abilities.

The possible benefits from effective and efficient performance appraisal are numerous. This helps in effective communication between the employees and the management of the organization. Employees become focused especially with the possible promotion of the posts and better remuneration on offer. There is increased productivity and service delivery within the organization due to the evaluation and decision making outcomes. This also helps the organization determine the training needs of its employees as it helps them in development of their careers. There is reinforced desire of performance of all the employees according to the goals set, objectives and aims of the organization.

Recommendations

            In order for Cleveland Clinic in Abu Dhabi to increase its organizational efficiency and effectiveness, the organization needs to increase the amount of resources towards the training and developing of the employees with lower skills in handling of the new technology. The organization also is required to undertake the use of internship on the aspiring members of the employee market. This will enhance a smooth transition into the retention of the services and skills gained through the active training before being fully absorbed into the organization’s roster. The organization should also increase the workforce to meet the rising demand by the patients.

The organization should be wary of subjective evaluation within a limited time. The employees should be encouraged to be evaluated on a year basis. The organization should also put a positive front in terms of the evaluation process since most workers have a negative perception towards the exercise (Aguinis 2009, p. 16). They often think it is a means to eliminating them from their jobs. The organization should allocate funds and resources towards activities that encourage teamwork like team building and team bonding expeditions. This should include all members of the workforce and management to encourage cooperation and better productivity (Arthur 2008, p. 21).

 

References:

Aguinis, H 2009, Performance management, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.

Arthur, D 2008, The first-time manager’s guide to performance appraisals, AMACOM, New York, NY.

DeNisi, A 2013, Performance Appraisal, Oxford University Press, London, UK.

Drucker, F, Peter & Maciariello, A, A 2008, Management, Collins, New York, NY.

Lawler, E 2012, What Makes Performance Appraisals Effective? SAGE, Los Angeles, CA.

 

Appendix:

Questionnaire

Name:

Gender:

Age:

Position:

Department:

Length of Service in the Organization:

Pay:

  1. How long does the evaluation of your position take?
  2. Do you prefer the evaluation done by management?
  3. What are the benefits of the evaluation in your opinion?
  4. Have you been promoted or demoted as a result?
  5. Have you done any training to improve your skills in your job description?
  6. Does your pay warrant the job description?
  7. What is the communication channel between you and the management?
  8. Are there improvements that can be effected towards the appraisal performance?
  9. What are the ways you would suggest to improve performance for the organization?

 

A Magnificent Catastrophe

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A Magnificent Catastrophe

The book A Magnificent Catastrophe, by Edward J. Larson, tells the story of the most bizarre and influential elections that have ever been held in the United States of America. The presidential campaigns were America’s first true campaigns and the contest shaped the future of the country. It was so important that Larson termed it as the ‘second American Revolution’ since it solved many unresolved issues about the government to be formed (Larson 22). The elections were fueled with chaos and confrontations between the two parties. Despite the scheming and backstabbing between John Adams and John Jefferson, the two candidates remain as symbols to be admired in the history of America. This shaped the democracy of the country and hence the name ‘A Magnificent Catastrophe’ that was given to the book by the author.

The author did a fabulous job by narrating the situation in the country after the revolutionary war, and how the two parties, Federalists and Republicans, came up after eleven years under the old constitution. He further goes on to explain the pain and suffering that was brought about by the elections. The system of elections for electing the president and the vice-president was different then as compared to now. This was due to the mistake stated by the constitution that the elected president and his vice would be tied after the electoral votes were counted. The main purpose of the book was to explain in detail the dynamics of elections in 1800, and their influence on the current system.

The book was interestingly written to capture both the public reader and scholar’s attention. In a perfect way, the author relates the complicated issues that affected the Nineteenth Century through to our time and still directly affect us today. The book makes the reader understand the different partisan positions of Nineteenth Century and their sources. Despite there being no simplification in the book, it makes the reader easily understand the complex matters. The author displays the complexity of contemporaneous response to Jefferson’s ideas in a fine way. He also later shows how critics like Christopher Hitchens were off base. There were many awful things said about Jefferson through the history, but they made more sense in a historical point of view once the reader had read this book. The book can be more classified as a scholarship book, very well written without the high-flown rhetoric. Very few people can achieve what the author achieved, especially on a delicate matter like this one.

The writer of the book was not biased. It was a bit difficult to ascertain the writer’s agenda or ideology. However, the reader did take in consideration some facts about Jefferson that were not entirely true. The writer stated that Jefferson was being a deist, which was false. Ideally, the writer did swamp the reader with a lot of information of which makes the reader not grasp everything. In addition to that, the writer should have drawn clearer parallels with the modern day issues that face the electoral system. The author completely exhausted both primary sources and pertinent secondary sources, as the book was detailed and precise. The book is highly recommended for its historical accuracy and keen to detail. Larson also provided the reader with wonderful accounts in that period, the dirty politics that were associated with it and compared them to today’s issues. Thomas Jefferson also commented that the biggest threat of government corruption lay in a president who is powerful and immune from the checks balances of congressional and state authority (Larson 101). Those words are true as we find them to be evident now. It seems things were not done any different two hundred years ago compared to now.

The intention of the writer when writing this book is definite since it is a narrative story. The engaging narrative works typically on two speeds. The first one is the series of events that took place on the Election Day in each battleground in the different states and the second being the broader sweep over the post revolutionary age that led to the nation, as it is currently (Larson 124). Readers who were seeking the history of the broad trends or ideas in the election of 1800 are advised to research in other books. Readers who wanted to know how the original structure of Electoral College affected the elections, and how the political decisions, actions and consequences shaped the nation, as we know it, they should read A Magnificent Catastrophe by Edward J. Larson, which is a worthwhile read. Much that can be learned from this book, the intra-party intrigues on both sides’ being among them. The most interesting was the absolute certainty for the parties, both Federalists and Republicans, that the American democracy would have been destroyed if either side won the much-contested election.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Larson, Edward J. A Magnificent Catastrophe: The Tumultuous Election of 1800, America’s First Presidential Campaign. New York: Free Press, 2007. Print.

Factors Risky to Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Caribbean

Factors Risky to Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Caribbean

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Factors Risky to Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Caribbean

Procedure

The use of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system theory in order to understand the risks involved. In addition, protective factors were employed to characterize different behaviors of adolescents. Risk factors caused a negative outcome while protective factors produced positive health behaviors. Various systems were analyzed beginning with the microsystem whereby the relationship between an adolescent and the immediate environment was studied. In the mesosystem, interrelations between adolescents and people with positive influence in their lives such as teachers or parents were considered. Cultural beliefs were also included through the macrosystem. Finally, the changes that occur over time to form the chronosystem were also examined.

Participants

The participants were youth from the Caribbean of a specific age group. The countries involved were of different demographics ranging from Bahamas to Trinidad and Tobago. They all have a variety of cultures and occasionally undergo different climatic conditions.

Methods

Online searches of articles were first conducted with a use of broad terms to widen the scope of the search and some key words like adolescents were keyed in. Thereafter, the inclusion exclusion criterion was used in which the acquired data was sieved from a checklist. Consequently, sources that for example had a clear description of the format, number of samples selected and results obtained were retained while those that maybe for one reason or another the age could not be determined were discarded. This information was crosschecked against objectives of the study and here clear and concise questions like have you ever used a condom featured. Changes of trends that affect behaviors were roped in too.

Results

The study showed that males were more prone to engage in sexual activity earlier in life than females although the latter showed willingness to use condoms more frequently. Older adolescents were more worried with contracting STIs and HIV but used condoms more consistently. However, just as Ingersoll & Ingersoll (1989) noted, having negative attitudes, for instance, anger and use of drugs increased the chances of an adolescent engaging in sexual activities with religion being the only significant deterrent. Similarly, youth who had a good relationship with their parents shied away from intercourse and one’s own environment increased the amount of peer pressure. In addition, urban youth perceived themselves differently from rural youth and horrible experiences in the past do contribute to bad behaviors.

Conclusion and Future Research

Various factors affect the overall development of adolescents and while some are because of societal expectations from them, others are self-induced (UNFPA, 2008). All these changes lead to adolescents acquiring different personalities and characteristics even if they come from the same geographical location. Since adolescents do not live in a vacuum, future research should zero in on the impact of the environment, especially technology in influencing decision making of adolescents. Other vulnerable youth like street children and orphans need also to be considered in future as well as those who have married at that relatively young age. This will give a clearer picture of how a holistic behavioral change occurs in an individual and could help explain why reactions to certain events vary from one person to another.

 

References

Ingersoll, G. & Ingersoll, G. W. (1989). Adolescents. Englewood Cliffs, N. J: Prentice Hall.

UNFPA. (2008). Emerging issues. Mental, sexual and reproductive health. Retrieved from http://www.unfpa.org/public/global/pid/910

Maintaining Competitiveness in a Global Environment

 

Maintaining Competitiveness in a Global Environment

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Maintaining Competitiveness in a Global Environment

A quick look at the Mall of America website versus that of Hillsdale Mall shows a glaring difference in terms of variety of products and services offered. The latter has fewer products and services. Mall of America has a bigger structure hence more facilities are available including but not limited to banking, restaurants, arcades and fashion stores. This makes it easier for it to serve people from all lifestyles as it gives them many options to choose from according to their taste and preferences as opposed to shoppers who visit Hillsdale Mall and get limited options.

Rowles, D. (2013) noted a fact, which is true that worldwide the youth are the fastest growing segment of the population everywhere in the world. It is evident therefore that their needs are well taken care of at the Mall of America. The local metropolitan area around Hillsdale Mall is possibly lived by people with fewer differences in terms of race. This factor contributes to its lack of a wide range of products and this could lead to a few customers being disgruntled if they visit it and get disappointed to find their favorite salad or fashion store lacking.

There is never a magic formula to succeed in any business but with making proper plans and having the right kind of strategy, Hillsdale Mall could grow even bigger and thus generate much more revenue because of an increase in their customer base. Most entrepreneurs recognize the fact that it is never enough to attract a customer but to make him or her come back again. The managers at Hillsdale Mall could begin with a more user friendly and fun website since it is common knowledge that millions of people use the internet everyday. This would make anyone who visits that site interested. Possibly, they will end up going to shop there as shown by T. N. (2006). Alternatively, many transactions worth billions of dollars are conducted over the internet annually so it is possible that they could attract a customer from locally or internationally, for instance, through hotel bookings.

In addition, they need to sponsor or secure popular events at their mall and aggressively market them prior. Some of the avenues they could use are newspapers, local radio and television stations. Handing out flyers to not only the passersby but also all shoppers who visit Hillsdale Mall informing them of future events is another great way for them to achieve fantastic results. Furthermore, they too should consider giving away Hillsdale branded merchandise especially to promote loyalty and as a way of using their customers to create brand visibility for them wherever they go. This shall enable them enjoy the benefits of free advertising. Finally, if their budget allows, they can conduct themed road shows around the neighborhood sensitizing people on the amazing offers or discounts available at Hillsdale Mall and the results are bound to be positive.

Conclusion

It is the wish of any businessperson to have a competitive advantage over others but it is also incumbent upon him or her to have the right business model in order to realize an influx of customers and increase in profit margins. This would be a win-win situation because the repeat customers would be happy and the businessperson would be reaping from his investments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Rowles, D. (2013). Mobile marketing: How mobile technology is revolutionizing marketing, communications, and advertising. London: Kogan Page.

T, N, N. (2006).Senior citizens driving internet usage, The Economic Times, 8.

Private versus Public Education

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Private versus Public Education

Education refers to the form of learning where skills, knowledge and habits of a particular group of people are passed on from one generation to subsequent ones. This is done through training, teaching or research. Educational forms also include any formative effects from an experience that influences the thinking of an individual. Education is carried out through stages such as early childhood, primary, secondary and higher or tertiary education. Other forms include vocational, special adult and alternative education. Institutions that are state funded make up the public institutions while the independently owned and funded make up the private institutions. Public education is better than private education.

Education relies on a curriculum, which is the predetermined purpose of the school’s system. Such systems are at times based on religion, which offers different curricula. Education takes place in both formal and informal settings. During the pre-literate times, the society equipped adults to train the young members in knowledge and skills that were necessary and required them to master and later on pass them on to the next generation (Bellei 8). This was achieved through oral means and imitation. Cultures began to expand the knowledge beyond those skills that utilized imitation through developing of formal education.

The choice between present day public and private institutions is a significant dilemma for the parents. In some cases, the private institutions offer superior education while the public institutions provide a diverse cultural experience. The public schools depend on local, state and federal tax funding. According to Bellei (9) public schools, follow guidelines by the state together with evaluation procedures. Private schools, on the other hand, depend on personal funding methods through grants, donations, tuition and endowments. For the religious schools, spiritual organizations act as important funding sources. In the areas that utilize voucher system, a check from the sate can fund the private schools.

The debate on public versus private schools rests on the fundamental principles of the purpose of education. The first and basic purpose is the quality of the provision and the outcomes on an educational basis. In general, the quality of education offered in private institutions provides better returns compared to the public schools (Peterson and Laulet 13). Considering the social background, at times the opposite is true. For example, absence by the teachers, the teacher to pupil ratio and teaching activities are parameters in checking the effectiveness of the education offered. In some countries, these parameters have favored the public institutions.

Affordability and choice of the poor in the society determines the type of institution a child attends. Droix and Matthias (31) agree that private schools offer better quality facilities for teaching while the perception of preference in the instructions through English language all seem to hand the private schools better reviews. This can only be achieved if the parent is able to afford the payments to such institutions. Exclusions are also present in terms of the social status. The poor in the society have no choice than to opt for the public schools that are affordable (Droix and Matthias 18). The limited affordability increases the gap between the two types of institutions.

Financial sustainability and cost-effective differences between the private and public institutions paint a different picture altogether. In some instances, the private schools usually operate on low cost by maintaining the salaries of teachers on the low levels. According to Dronkers and Robert (41), the financial situation in such cases maybe worse if the dependence of the fees is on low-income families. In the public schools, the government or state centrally contracts the teachers. Their financial sustainability is guaranteed according to the terms of the contract spelled out. The public schools have an edge here depending on the funding by the state or government.

The political arm of the government determines the standing of the public schools (Dronkers and Roberts 43). The rules and regulations debated upon and drawn up by the politicians are followed up in these institutions as part of the larger system of schools. For the private institutions, funding and regulations are drawn up on the personal basis. There is the general lack of bureaucratic processes, which govern the public schools. This allows the private schools to highly specialize, offer learning in a differentiated setup and advance the curriculum. There is room for development of special programs geared to the specific goals.

The admission procedures between public and private institutions provide a clear distinction. According to the law, public institutions are mandated with admitting all interested children. This does not cover learning or any disability for that matter. The public schools lack adequate resources and facilities to assist such individuals. Private institutions, on the other hand, are selective in terms of admission (Glodloe 8). The law does not obligate them whatsoever. Such admission depends on interviews, testing and essay applications. Other criteria that can be used in the admission include ethnical and religious backgrounds including attributes that relate to the parents such as assets and social status.

The teacher qualification in the education sector is a major determinant in the choice of the two institutions. It is perceived that teachers in private schools are highly qualified and certified. Glodloe (11) points out an important note that the teachers in public schools are certified by the state. This is at the minimum, whereas those that have not been certified are working towards that. The certification by the state is a confirmation of coursework done and achievement of the required training necessary for the education process. In the private schools, the teachers might not have the certification, maybe a form of expertise in a specific subject-area.

Curriculum development in private and public institutions provides a similar discrepancy. Private institutions have the flexibility to choose the type of curriculum and models of assessment, as they deem possible (Nishimura and Yamano, 17). This freedom results in either higher or lower standards by any means. The public schools, on the other hand, have to follow the laid down guidelines by the state or government. This provides for a quality control mechanism in the public schools in general. Part of the assessment procedure provided for by both sets is having the same criteria in the rating and approval of performances by the students.

A common feature with the public schools is the size of the classroom. In the lower grades, the sizes of classes are generally small. Nishimura and Yamano (19) confirm that once the students advance to higher grades, the sizes increase gradually. This is common in urban institutions and large district schools in the public category. In the private schools, there is general variation in this. The classes are small and maintain a low ratio between the students to teachers. There is no substantial guarantee that the sizes are maintained below a certain level. Some private schools, especially those of a religious nature have been known to have classes larger than those in public schools.

The special needs of some students are entrenched in the special education laws that affect the public schools significantly. Public schools are obliged to approve and enforce special programs to the special needs of such categories. Private schools, on the other hand, are not obliged to do this. It is however, adequate to note that there are private schools specifically made for people with special needs. In other instances, the private schools employ a method known as ‘counseling out’ where they recommend such students to seek alternative admissions. Others might accept the admission of such students but at an added cost due to the resources.

Schwarzenberger (14) says that due to the autonomous nature of private schools, they are free to offer education on religion or curriculum that is not regulated by state standards. Most of the private schools are accredited while other good ones are not. The accreditation show that the schools have met certain criteria set by peers. It also signifies that the academic programs and administration procedures are reviewed by an external group on a regular basis after a certain amount of time. Tuition is generally higher in the private schools, up to the tertiary levels of education like private universities.

Public institutions offer an easier chance of education to all members of the society. In Bellei’s words (36), it is stated that the public schools were “doing an outstanding job”. The government, in some instances, offers loans to the students who qualify for a place in the tertiary forms of learning like the universities. Public schools generally are diverse in composition as compared to the private institutions. Several factors lead to the choice of public schools by most parents. There is proximity with home. This is associated wit the neighborhood schools. Students who live close at home and tend to go to the same public school in the neighborhood have a better form of social time as arranged.

The cooperation between parents and teachers through Parent Teacher Organization in public schools is enhanced. According to Glodloe (18), there is more openness in having the parents at the classrooms in public institutions as compared to the private institutions. The transportation of students to the school is another issue. According to the proximity of the homestead to the school, most ties it is cheaper than the arrangement through private schools, which have a higher fee. In the case of low-income families, there is provision of meals like lunch. Either this is through reduced rates or depending on the funding, the lunch can be free for all.

Education is vital in the society. It is the transfer of knowledge and skills in a formal process and setting from one generation to another. Public and private education offers two distinct methods of equipping the society with the necessary knowledge in solving of problems that face everyday life and challenges. Private education depends on its own funding through sources like tuition fee. If the institution is religious-based, the funding can be achieved from the religious sources. Public education is dependent on the state or government funding through taxes. Assessment and administrative programs are also guided by the government guidelines. In both forms of education, through comparisons, they both have advantages and disadvantages over the other. In conclusion, public education is better and efficient as compared to the private education. This is due to the diversification in admission and composition while also providing services for all people no matter the social class in the society at affordable rates.

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited:

Bellei, Christian. The Private-Public School Controversy: The Case of Chile. Harvard Graduate School of Education. O5-13. (2005) 1-49. Print.

The journal looks at the role of the administrators in the two education systems, the teacher’s roles and the difference in efficiency of the two systems.

 Croix, David and Matthias Doepke. Public Versus Private Education when Differential Fertility Matters. Journal on Education and Learning.  5. (2003). 1-29. Print.

The document takes a one-sided approach in the debate between the two education systems. It also provides the statistical evidence to support its favor of the public education.

US Department of Education, National Assesment of Educational Progress. Comparing Private Schools and Public Schools Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. NCES 2006-461. PDF file.

The journal looks at broadly the effect of the two education systems have in the society. It provides a general overview of the different systems across the world and marks out the successful and efficient means.

Dronkers, Jaap and Peter Robert. The Effectiveness of Public and Private Schools from a Comparative Perspective.  Department of Political and Social Sciences. 3. (2013): 1-65. Print

The journal gives the statistical evidence necessary between the public education system and private education system. It also provides global statistics in the efficiency of both systems.

 

Goodloe, Rachel. The Differences Between the Public and Private School Systems. Journal of Undergraduate Research, MSU-Mankato. Vol. 5. (2005). 1-12. Print.

The journal gives an overview of the comparisons between public and private schools. It effectively gives the general performance of the two institutions.

Nishimura, Mikiko and Takashi Yamano. School Choice between Public and Private Primary Schools under The Free Primary Education Policy in Rural Kenya. GRIPS Policy Information Centre. 08-02. (2008). 1-22. Print.

The document studies the differences in the systems in Rural Kenya and gives an overview of the efficient systems and reasons.

Peterson, Paul and Elena Laulet. “On the Public-Private School Achievement Debate.” American Political Science Association. 06.02 (2006): 1-58. Print.

Paul’s and Elena’s file is particularly concerned with the lessons observed from the two contrasting forms of funded education and the impact on the students.

Schwarzenberger, Astrid. Public/ Private Funding of Higher Education: A Social Balance. Center for Higher Education Studies. 5:01. (2008). Print.

The journal takes a one-sided approach in the debate between the two education systems. It also provides the statistical evidence to support its favor of the public education.

 

 

 

 

Modernized Political Systems

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Modernized Political Systems

The need for modernized political systems has been apparent since the first half of the millennium. Many leaders have used the typology of leadership on the available formal structures of the state. The number of formal structures determines the standardization of democratic forms and moves that the existing leadership may use. Government institutions differ from one regime to another as demonstrated in the discussed leaderships of Nehru and Mao in India and China respectively.

How Jawaharlal Nehru and top INC leaders modernized the political systems of India

Jawaharlal Nehru returned to India from London in 1912 where he joined the Indian National Congress (INC). However, INC leaders dismayed Nehru’s elitism. In 1913, Nehru together with a few others led a campaign. He was faced with the challenge of uniting a vast population in terms of culture, language and religion in India. In 1930, Nehru became the leader of the INC party and over the time, he was able to establish various reforms in the economic, social and educational front successfully. His policies included non-alignment and the principles of peaceful coexistence.

In 1942, Nehru was jailed by the British, for his campaign on Home Rule for India. This was a call to have India to be an independent and self-governing dominion. He was released in 1945 after three years later in jail. After his release, immediately began negotiations over the future of India and its independence. He led India through international negotiations up until the emergence of the Sino-Indian War in the year 1962.

The Sino-Indian war resulted a major losses and suffering within the Indian force. People were killed, others went missing and others were captures by the People’s Liberation Army of China. This was a humiliating and frustrating defeat for Nehru and it highly contributed to his declining health that saw the end of his career (Mitra 98).  However, Nehru changed the leadership of India from three policy choices and mechanisms. Nehru is credited for having sustained India’s weak democracy and bringing some major forms of stability in India. This was seen to be was seen to be breakthrough from the major lapse the country had undergone. Nehru has been described as a “pivotal actor” for the fact that he gradually accumulated visionary leadership in India and he is remembered for leading India to the world’s largest democracy, a nation dedicated to neutrality in the cold war and most importantly, a nation dedicated to quick development in the field of education, economics and technology (Manion 29).

How Mao Zedong and top CCP leaders modernized the political systems of China

Mao Zedong’s leadership has been hotly debated over the time. Unlike his Indian counterpart Nehru who joined an already existing party, Mao founded the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and just like Nehru, he played a major role in changing and improving governance in China. He elected top officials in CCP who worked hand in hand with him to establish the Red Army and the development of a defensible base in the province of Jiangxi in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Through his governance, Mao Zedong improved many political initiatives and transformed China through land reforms, agriculture and provision of medical services throughout China. Together with his party officials, Mao led the country to the establishment of People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949.

In 1958, Mao strongly advocated for a self-reliant campaign in the rural areas of China. The campaign was dubbed “Great Leap Forward” which later failed and saw Mao shift many responsibilities over to other leaders and withdrew from independent decision making. Unlike Nehru, saw the importance of delegating duties to other leaders of his party and consulted the top leaders in various projects and decisions. However, this did not stop him from the restless challenge of seeking capital restoration in the PRC.

In foreign policy, Mao ended all relations with the Soviet Union without consultations. He felt that his delegation was not visionary for the development of PRC and he feared that the delegation would foster political and social inequalities. He therefore continued to referee a struggle between those who gained from the Cultural Revolution and protected its policies. Unlike Nehru who made his daughter an heir, Mao appointed one of his ministers of defense as his heir who led China into the arrest of major radicals one month after Mao’s death, which saw the collapse of developments in China and all that Mao fought for.

The Nation-Building Theme in the Movie “Asoka” (2001)

The Movie (Asoka 2001) focuses on how India was made up of many small kingdoms in the 1900 B.C.E. An empire known as the “Mauryan Empire” was founded in 322 B.C.E. During this time, a nobleman named Chandragupta Maurya conquered and reined on the Northern part of India. Maurya used his army and spies to protect him against his enemies. After his death, his son Ashoka succeeded him. Ashoka conquered a brutal battle against the kingdom of Kalinga. A nation building theme can be learnt when Ashoka later rejected violence and converted to Buddhism. This conversion saw Ashoka give up on wars and urged his subjects to treat one another with respect. However, this did not stop Ashoka from practicing slavery and keeping all the land that was conquered by the Mauryans. Ashoka spread Buddhist values such as upholding morality and responsibility allover his empire.

The Nation-Building Theme in the Movie “Jumong” (2006)

In the movie (Jumong 2006), it is evident that the demise of Josun was partly caused by the Han and because of internal struggles. This occurred a number of years before a hero named Jumong was born. Korea was initially divided into several kingdoms, which were always at war that led to the downfall of Korea. In the theme, the movie focuses on politics, a number of foreign and domestic issues, which led to the formation and merging of both North and South Korea. The nation-building theme is evident when the loss of national sovereignty becomes a top concern to the Han Chinese and the patriotism of the Korean people. The theme also condemns the recklessness and emotionalism, which it brings out as contempt on patriots and appeasers alike.        Another nation-building theme is depicted when the issue of internal disunity, which saw the downfall of Jusun, is overlooked. The theme addresses major issues such as Korean’s attitude towards politics, leadership and democracy. Another notable nation-building theme in the movie is the uncompromising heroes of Korea who are willing to sacrifice comfort, prestigious positions and even their lives in the effort to steer them away from the Korean soil.

The role of women in nation building as demonstrated in the movie was to play the role caretakers to soldiers who are wounded after going to war for the sake of their country. The women nurse the wounds of the fighters and fend them until they are strong enough to go back to war.

The Nation-Building Theme in the Movie “The Ten Commandments” (1956)

The movie “The Ten Commandments” was produce in 1956. It movie was created by an Australian named Barrett and was inspired by a juvenile-court judge who confronted and accused a 16-year-old boy of stealing a car. The judge quoted to the young man one of the Ten Commandments. Apparently, the boy was oblivious to the commandments and therefore the judge pardoned him and gave him a Bible so that he could read and obey The Ten Commandments. The theme of the movie raises a debate as to whether God’s laws should govern men or whether men should be ruled their leaders. This raises the question whether men are the property of God or property of the state.

A nation building theme that can be learned in this movie is that, whether humans are governed by law or God’s law, they are obligated to observe mandatory rules and failure to that, they will be condemned by both the state and God. The movies other nation-building theme focuses on the importance maintaining good relationships across the region. The role of women in nation building is portrayed in the movie shortly after Moses is born and the Hebrew rulers order for the slaying of all firstborn males. Moses’ Mother takes the initiative of hiding his newly born son by the banks of River Nile and two women rescue the infant (a princess and her servant). Moses later became a young general and led victorious wars in the Ancient Ethiopia, entering Egypt and forming alliances with the conquered Egyptians where he is condemned of building a treasure city. Another nation-building trait that is learnt from the movie is how Moses fights for supremacy in the land and institutes reforms that abolish mistreatment of slaves.

The Bach Việt 百越 Bai Yue

The Bach Việt 百越 Bai Yue,  denotes various units of people who lived in Southern China and Northern Vietnam in the first Millennium in a state called “Yue”. The people of Yue were fluent in agriculture and technology especially in shipbuilding. However, the Chinese people viewed them as barbarians because of their poor living conditions and tattoos. They were later evicted when the Chinese civilization spread into southern China in the first half of the millennium AD. However, states that the Yue speech is not unlimited to fragmentation of references and word in other languages such as Chinese. The Chinese and the Yue have many mutual grammatical features and syllable structures (Mailer and Mei 55).

Inter-marriages in the first half of the millennium saw part the Yue largely become a part of the Chinese people. The term “Yue” was later used to represent a region rather than a culture. The Baiyue have been largely compared to the evicted tribes from Israel. This has contributed to a major speculation among the Chinese historians raising questions such as the ethnicity and originality of the Baiyue (57). They have been linked partly to the people of South China and partly to the people of Vietnam where most of them settled since the first half of the Century. The Yue culture has been practiced in some parts of China and Vietnam. In addition, a number of Chinese and Vietnamese have since adapted a number of words and characters from the Bayue (Mailer and Mei 59).

 

Works Cited

Mailer, N. and Mei. Minimal Old Chinese and Later Han Chinese: A Companion to Grammata Serica Recensa. 1976. Print.

Manion, F. Contemporary Chinese Politics. 2009. Print.

Mitra, S. When Rebels Become Stakeholders. Democracy, Agency and Social Change in India. 2009. Print.

 

Bring Your Own Device

Bring Your Own Device

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Bring Your Own Device

Bring Your Own Device/Bring Your Own Technology refers to a policy that allows members of a workforce or employees in an organization to use their personal mobile devices like smartphones, tablets and personal computers (PCs) to access data and systems of a company that are privileged and contain information and applications. This term can also be applied in the education setup where students can be allowed to use their personal devices in similar settings. Bring Your Own Device policy has gained momentum in the corporate world over the years with significant benefits. The policy has faced vast challenges. However, it should be encouraged in the setup of organizations for enhanced productivity.

The Bring Your Own Device policy has several primary benefits to various organizations. First, it brings about employee satisfaction. According to Keyes (2013), there is an added advantage within the workforce when they use their personally owned devices in an office. There is security and flexibility, and this serves to increase the productivity of the workforce. For an organization, there is a cost saving impetus that comes with the policy. Since the employees use their own devices, the organization cuts on operation costs in the purchase of items like the hardware, device maintenance and licensing of the software that the employees use. The only cost associated with such an environment is on the organization’s systems.

A major benefit of the policy to an organization is the added productivity gains accrued. Employees naturally will be happier using their own devices in a work environment, and this creates comfort and fast operations and input. This translates to productivity that is a major boost for the organization. Some of the key ways the concept can enhance overall working experience to an end user is through the localization of the applications and data systems. This is through motivation of the staff, allowing applications that create enhanced teamwork through communication while personalizing the work environment within the official setup as the employees remain comfortable with their personal devices.

The use of Bring Your Own Device policy comes with certain risks especially to security. Ballard (2012) states that the policy has resulted in several data breaches. For example, an employee can use his or her smart phone to access an organization’s network and accidentally lose the phone. The untrusted parties who come across the phone can retrieve the company data, which is unsecured and use it for various crimes. In addition, when an employee leaves the organization, he/she leaves the company with his/her mobile device containing the unsecured data. This can be used to perpetrate crimes in the name of the company. In terms of roles that govern customer faxing, the use of the phone number remains with the employee, and this can be used to help competitors.

Major risks associated with Bring Your Own Device policy include capability and scalability. Many organizations lack proper infrastructure of networks in handling large traffic of data when the employees use their devices at the same time. Earlier on, simple WLAN infrastructure was capable of handling the traffic, but with sophisticated smartphones, it is quite difficult. Some of the security controls include market and policies by application virtualization, containerization and mobile device management. This includes monitoring of security threats in companies’ data systems and applications, and signing of policies that require confiscation of devices if found to contravene classified or criminal data by the governments. Other means that have been employed include monitoring and tracking of the data usage and abuse of the companies’ networks and applications by advanced security software.

Bring Your Own Device policy was effectively used in the Ford Motors Company from the onset of 2007 (Lai, 2011). The company entrusted the use of the Blackberry mobile service in providing gadgets for the company, which some employees would use for sales and marketing of the company’s products. In addition, the company allowed the employees to use their mobile devices in the functioning of its operations during the period of the policy introduction. This ultimately had significant results in terms of productivity and performance by the company. There was increased satisfaction within the working environment by the workers, and it boosted the business gains through the overall returns. The company even set about to offer stipends to the employees as reimbursements in the usage of their personal devices.

In conclusion, Bring Your Own Device policy is quite an effective means of gaining business profitability in an organization. Personally, I would recommend the use of the policy in a real organization with strict rules and security management strategies in curbing any crimes that can arise from the deployment. Despite the security risks involved, the benefits of the policy far outweigh them. There is general employee satisfaction, minimal added cost to the organization in terms of hardware purchases, software licensing and device maintenance while the productivity levels of the employees increases with flexibility within the working environment.

 

References:

Ballard, M. (2012). Bring your own device – Unabridged Guide. Dayboro: Emereo Publishing.

Keyes, J. (2013). Bring your own devices (BYOD) survival guide. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis.

Lai, E. (2011). How Ford Motor Deployed Bring Your Own Device (BYOD). Forbes. Web. July 15, 2014. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/sap/2011/12/07/how-ford-motor-deployed-bring-your-own-device-byod/

Culture and Its Influence in Shaping Human Behaviour

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Culture and Its Influence in Shaping Human Behaviour

Numerous definitions of culture exist but social scientists seem to agree that culture is a socially transmitted heritage peculiar to a particular society but beyond this there is little consensus. Definitions of culture in general entail the observation of rules, customs, responsibilities and morals which are affected by a range of levels of culture such as language, sexual characteristics and employment. Man is not only a social being but also a cultural one. Culture serves several functions to the individual. Culture separates an individual from an animal. It offers a solution to difficult situations. In the absence of culture, man would have been baffled even at the simplest situations. It shapes one’s personality and provides traditional interpretation to certain situations. There is no doubt that culture influences people in making almost all decisions in our lives, underlying what we are taught and the values with which we have been raised.

As one of the most conservative traditional societies in the world grapples with the impact of modernization wrought by the influx of great oil wealth that began only in the mid 20th century, Saudi culture is in a constant state of flux. Saudi culture developed through age old interaction between the Arabian people and their harsh desert environment. Being a Saudi national, the country’s culture has greatly influenced my way of life. For example, in terms of dressing, one is to wear lose, decent clothes since tight or revealing dressing that exposes shoulder’s, calves and thighs is forbidden. My attitudes of dressing, with that background is that it should be well fitting and not reveal the body parts mentioned above. My culture also prohibits greeting by touching if it involves a man and a woman unless they are related by birth or marriage and even then it tends to be minimal. However, a decent amount of touching between individuals of the same gender is allowed. Unlike in some cultures, it is common for two men to walk hand in hand in public and this does not have any implication on their sexual preferences. The above examples are a clear indication of how culture shapes our attitudes as well as way of life.

Human behavior is the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental and social activity during the phases of human life. Aside from culture, anthropologists believe that human behavior is shaped by two main factors: genetics and the environment. In the Saudi Arabian culture, alcohol consumption is strictly prohibited. It’s consumption is illegal for all ages while smoking is only permissible to male figures. Anyone caught in violation of this can be lashed. Because of the culture, most Saudi Arabians steer clear from alcohol consumption. With regards to driving, culture norms dictate that women do not drive or ride bicycles or cars on public roads. It is also unacceptable for women to voice their opinions about many things or question their male guardian’s authority. Consequently, most Saudi Arabian women are considered shy and passive. Dating is not socially accepted and can result in serious consequences if people are caught. However, people still do it though very discreetly. One’s behaviour is therefore dependent on the culture contrary to which there are dire consequences as seen in the examples above.

The term morality can be used to refer to a system of ideas of right and wrong conduct. Ideals and morals are obtained at the early stage of someone’s life. Culture dictates what is considered right or wrong in a particular society as well as gender roles. Saudi Arabian courts will punish a rapist with anything from flogging to execution under the Sharia law. As there is no penal code in Saudi Arabia there is no written law which specifically criminalizes rape or prescribes its punishment. Concerning morality, dressing, especially for the Arab women, is considered an important aspect and the manner in which a woman dresses is considered morally significant. If a woman violates the dress code in this society, she may be arrested by religious police and detained. The women have to wear the abaya (a full black cloak), the hijab (headscarf) and the niqaab (face veil).

In the Arabian culture, family and tribe are the basis of the social structure. Saudis are cognizant of their heritage as seen in their naming conventions. They take their responsibilities to their families quite seriously and an individual derives a social network and assistance in times of need from the family. Nepotism is valued since it implies that employing people one knows and trusts is of primary importance. Culture instills in individuals a sense of responsibility which enables the individual to make significant contribution to the society. Culture gives shape to human experience.

Heritage, Culture and Class in Familial Conflict

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Heritage, Culture and Class in Familial Conflict

Literature has been influenced by the society, from time to time. The questions of relation, heritage, culture and class have played a big thematic role in American literature. These concerns have been exemplified through works such as Alice Walker’s ‘Everyday Use’, Louis Erdrich’s ‘The Red Convertible’ and Flannery O’Connor’s ‘Everything That Rises Must Converge’. In these stories, a familial link is seen through the characters used. For instance, Dee and Mama in ‘Everyday Use’ share the relationship of a mother and daughter. Such relationships have been used to advance the theme of conflict between the characters in the respective stories. From analysis, it is seen that such familial conflicts enable the writers to achieve a successful reflection on the issues of heritage, culture and class in the American society.

Everyday Use

Alice Walker authored ‘Everyday Use’ as part of ‘In Love and Trouble: Stories of Black Women (1973)’, a short stories collection. The story reflects on her experiences in earlier life, albeit with a fresh set of characters. Her influences in life also play a role. For instance, she adopts an African name for the character Dee from her experience in Uganda, an East African nation (Madden, 130). The story focuses on interconnection of past times and the present, and the conflicts that may result. Heritage refers to things that are considered of great value to a community. For instance, community-specific architecture, literature and art may be valued. The question of heritage results into friction between Dee and her family. The characters in the story are of black origin. When Dee goes to school, she changes her name to Wangero Leewanika Kemanjo, an African name. Mama even has difficulties pronouncing the name. Despite sharing the same skin pigmentation, Mama highlights that the name does not reflect their heritage. She tells Dee that her name was sourced from her Aunt Dicie converse to Dee’s beliefs. The conflict is intensified when Dee informs Mama that she does not understand her heritage (Walker 386).

An individual’s mode of dress reflects their heritage and culture (Vasquez 1). This also serves as a key differentiator between their membership and other cultures. For instance, Indian clothing differs from Western modes of dress. When Dee arrived home, she wore different clothes (Walker 385). Her mother disapproved of her clothing and appearance. Education is partially responsible for stratification in the society. For example, individuals that have acquired higher educational qualifications are more likely to attain higher social standing though greater incomes. Dee is well educated unlike her family. For instance, Mama only managed to study until the second grade. Due to the resulting class differences, there is conflict between Dee and her family. When she went home during the holidays, Dee tried to force ideas and educational concepts on her family. Mama usually resented this (Walker 383). When Dee goes home, she desires their family’s quilts. However, Mama had promised them to Maggie a while back. To justify her need for them, Dee argues that Maggie is not smart enough to preserve them (Walker 387). This heightens the unspoken rift between the two sisters. However, there are efforts in minimizing the conflict in the story. In the proceedings, Maggie allows Dee to take as many quilts as she wants.

The Red Convertible is a short story by Louise Erdrich, from her collection titled Love Medicine. The story is focused on two brothers, Lyman Lamartine and Henry. Consequently, it explores the dynamics of their relationship prior to Henry’s deployment in the Vietnam War, and after his return. The story is set in the Chippewa Native American reservation in North Dakota. It is therefore important to note their Native American heritage and culture. However, the story is spread to Alaska during Lyman and Henry’s road trip there. Prior to Henry’s deployment, he shared a healthy relationship with his brother. This is seen through the common activities that they regularly undertook, such as the drives in the convertible. However, this takes a turn once Henry returns from the War. Following analysis of the story, it is seen that Henry felt trapped in a war that did not make sense to him (Madden 69). As a Native American, he saw it as a white man’s war that he did not understand (Erdrich 476). To Henry, the White man was embodied by various objects following his return. This creates a rift between him and Lyman, who does not understand Henry’s views (Erdrich 478). After all, he never felt trapped in the war, as he did not participate in it.

In Native American culture, the red color is highly symbolic (Madden, 70). Firstly, it symbolizes the desire to be free. Henry shares the same desire. However, he maintains great thought before deciding to exercise it. This results into friction with his brother Lyman, who does not understand why Henry will not drive with him in the red convertible. For instance, Lyman considers him jumpy and mean. Consequently, Lyman is angered and hammers the car. When Henry sees the damaged car, his desire for it is rekindled. He puts great work in it for a month and finally fixes it. In Chippewa culture, gifts are granted to the family of the deceased. When Henry attempts to hand over ownership of the car to his brother, he is met with resistance. Lyman sees ownership of the car as a precedent of Henry’s death, which he naturally opposes. The conflict is partially resolved as the brothers recall their past relationship. However, the conflict resumes following Henry’s symbolic death. In rejection of Henry’s idea of freedom, Lyman sinks the red symbolic car in the river (Erdrich 482).

Everything That Rises Must Converge is a story by Mary Flannery O’Connor, from 1961. The story focuses on the conflict between Julian and his mother. The conflict results from questions concerning their heritage (Madden 153). It is most vivid through the differences in White appreciation of other cultures. The difference in their respective generations heightens this conflict further. Julian desires to grow wealthy in his life. This prompts his mother to speak of her grandfather’s wealth during his time as a farmer. She consequently mentions the vast number of slaves that he owned. Their slave-owning heritage embarrasses Julian. This creates a tension between the two, as Julian believes in equal opportunity for the White and Black races (O’Connor 22).

The tension mounts when her mother implies that black people should be allowed to rise, albeit separate from the White society (O’Connor 24). In compensation for his mother’s statements, Julian is determined to sit next to a black person when they board the bus. Julian’s mother was influenced by a cultural period of extensive formality. When Julian removes his tie, she describes his look as that of a thug. At that instance, Julian highlights their cultural differences. He states that true culture is found in the mind, and not in physical manifestations (O’Connor 43). This results into bickering between the two at the bus stop. When the bus arrives, Julian drifts into thought. He thinks of how he may annoy his mother. For instance, Julian thinks of bringing a black lawyer home for dinner. Such scenarios highlight the extent of conflict between the two relatives. When his mother is attacked by a black woman following a gesture that was considered insulting, Julian is relatively happy (O’Connor 102). However, the conflict is not solved in its entirety following the death of Julian’s mother.

Through analysis of the literature, the theme of conflict is seen to be more prevalent in family backgrounds. It is attributable to differences regarding culture, heritage or class between the family members. Through conflict, authors are able to develop their themes and plots effectively. Similarly, they assist in providing insights on American questions on culture, heritage and class.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Erdrich, Louise. The red convertible. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2009. Print.

Madden, Frank. Instructor’s Manual to accompany Madden Exploring Literature. New York: SUNY Westchester Community College, 2004. E-book.

O’connor, Flannery. Everything that rises must converge. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1965. Print.

Vasquez, Juan. “Characterization and Symbolism in Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use”.” Characterization and Symbolism in Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use”, 2013. Web. 23 Oct 2013. <http://www.lonestar.edu/13778.htm>.

Walker, Alice and Barbara Christian. Everyday use. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1994. Print.