President Abraham Lincoln’s 10% plan proposed that the Southern States would be allowed to rejoin the union as long as 10% of its leaders who voted in 1860 would swear allegiance to t9he United States and recognize emancipation. Further, all confederate official and officers were to lose their voting rights until they sought a presidential pardon (Gardner 40). However, the Republican Party wanted a delayed reintegration through the Davis-Wade bill (Tucker 2565). This bill sought the administration of confederate states by military generals for a period before reintegration.
The assassination of Lincoln brought Andrew Johnson to power, and his view was the immediate reintegration of seven southern states back into the Union, and in the process, he united the radical Republicans. In addition, by vetoing the Freedmen and Civil rights acts, he incensed the radical Republicans leading to the period being called radical reconstruction.
Ulysses S. Grant administered America form 1869-1877. During this time, he tried to reconcile the north and south. However, as violence continued in the south, he sent northern troops to maintain law and order but was resented by southerners. Further, he was unable to resolve the conflicts involving Native Americans. Besides, his administration was mired in corruption scandals, and he was viewed as an ineffectual leader (Williams 43). However, the reconstruction period came to an end when southern democrats compromised not to contest the election of Republican Rutherford B. Hayes if all the Northern troops were withdrawn from the South. This led to a backlash from the White community against people of color inform of racial segregation and second-class citizenry status for another century.
The resettlement of the American West was made possible by the establishment of railroads. They offered a cheap and efficient means of transportation but also ensured the emerging economy in agriculture and mining had a way of delivering their products to emerging markets in cities and towns. However, in the period leading up to the establishment of the transcontinental railroad, Native Americans suffered displacements occasioned by various treaties (Snodgrass 113). Also, there were forceful evictions where the Native Americans refused to sign the treaties leading to violent conflicts.
Alabama Claims 1862-1872
These were compensatory claims by the United States against the British government for losses incurred due to the use of ships built in British yards for the confederate army. They were significant because they provided a framework for international conflict resolutions.
Pacific Railway Act 1862
This act was to aid in the construction of a railway and telegraph line from Omaha, Nebraska to Sacramento, California for use in both civil and military needs. It was significant in cementing California’s allegiance to the Union and opening the frontiers for settlement and commerce.
Homestead Act 1862
This act facilitated settlement by all Americans including freed slaves of the western frontier. It was significant in opening up the west but was also a course for displacement of Native Americans.
Tenure of Office Act 1867
This was a Federal Law that sought to limit the powers of the president to dismiss certain officials without the consent of the Senate. It gave the holders of the covered offices the ability to work independently without fear of dismissal.
Freedmen’s Bureau 1865
It was meant to assist freed slaves by providing social services and employment contracts with landowners. It was significant because it addressed the inequality that the freed slaves faced.
Gardner, Sarah E. Blood and Irony: Southern White Women’s Narratives of the Civil War, 1861-1937. University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. Settlers of the American West. Jefferson, Mcfarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2015.
Tucker, Spencer Coakley. American Civil War. Santa Barbara, Calif, ABC-CLIO, 2013.
Williams, Jean Kinney. Ulysses S. Grant. Minneapolis, Compass Point Books, 2002.
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