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Feagin, Joe. 1991. “The Continuing Significance of Race: Antiblack Discrimination in Public Places.” American Sociological Review, (56)1: 101-116.

Research question

The primary objective for conducting the study is to identify whether black Americans continue to experience discrimination in the modern society or whether instances of molestation have decreased.

Hypothesis

The hypothesis by Feagin is that it is still common to find discrimination against the black community in different areas of life.

Type of study

The surveyor employs the qualitative study to complete the exercise.

Methods

The experimenter questions participants who narrate the forms of discrimination that they continue to experience many years after the law abolished segregation. The questions focus on the place of discrimination, the nature of the discriminatory actions, and the coping strategies depicted by the blacks in response to the situation.

Sample

The study brings together 135 American blacks who belong to the middle-class. The respondents come from diverse cities such as Washington, D.C., Houston, Detroit, Antonio, Marshall, and Las Vegas.

Results

The study reveals that so many black Americans continue to experience discrimination in places such as churches, schools, hospitals, and workplaces.

Interpretation of Results

The finding suggests that the laws that ban racial discrimination is not yet effective and need further refurbishment to become effective.

Limitations

The major limitation in the study is that the authors tend to use longer paragraphs which may confuse learners who do not have the capacity to comprehend extensive narrations.

Suggestions for Future Research

The investigators should identify why cases of discrimination against the black population continues to exist in the future times.

Discussion Questions

  1. Does idea that black Americans continue to experience discrimination mean that the segregation will never come to an end?
  2. What can the black Americans do to completely eradicate instances discrimination?

O’Connor, Thomas, Hoge Dean, and Alexander Estrelda. 2002. The Relative Influence of Youth and Adult Experiences on Personal Spirituality and Church Involvement. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, (41)4: 723-732.

Research question

The major objective is to identify the strength of adult and youth influences on their religious and institutional participation at the age of thirty eight years.

Hypothesis

The experimenters hypothesize that older people are likely to find religious practices appealing compared to the younger generation.

Type of study

The investigators use the mixed type of study where they apply the qualitative and the quantitative forms to acquire data.

Methods

The investigators give participants questionnaires where they give their descriptions concerning how they conduct their private prayers, how they attend the Bible classes, and how often they read religious materials among other factors. The surveyors further formulated a two-item Youth Traditional Sexual Beliefs Scale which inquired about the participants’ interest in acts such as sex.

Sample

The research incorporates 206 young adults who attend middle-class churches from three denominations (Methodists, Baptists, Catholic). The sample included a majority of females who constituted 55% while males formed 45%.

Results

The study showed that the youth and adults exhibit varying spiritual beliefs and practices and that the older put more participant in religious actions compared to the young.

Interpretation of Results

The results show that by nature, a person gains the desire to focus on religious practices as they grow older. The change may show that people tend to change they view things as they become old.

Limitations

The chief limitation in the study is that the experimenters tend to use technical terms to explain their points. The table on page 730, for example, utilizes technical mathematical formula to interpret the data from the quantitative study.

Suggestions for Future Research

The investigators should focus on whether more young people will remain defiant to religious teachings and beliefs in the coming years, or whether they will show devotion as the older population does.

Discussion Questions

  1. Does it mean that the younger generation does not know what is right for them due to the fact that a majority off older people pay attention to religious teachings and requirements?
  2. What factors may drive more youths to put their belief on religion?

Sorensen, Jon, Wrinkle Robert, Brewer Victoria, and Marquart James. “Capital Punishment and Deterrence: Examining the Effect of Executions on Murder in Texas.” Crime & Delinquency, (45)4: 481-493.

Research question

The investigators seek to identify the connection between felony murder and executions and the specific connection between felony murder rates and executions.

Hypothesis

The hypothesis in the study is that the number of executions is likely to increase because the government the views the technique as a way of punishment.

Type of study

The researchers use the evaluation method to acquire data by sourcing and comparing information from various literacy sources.

Methods

The surveyors collect data dating from 1984 to 1997 from credible and official sources. The experimenters then identify the rate of executions and murder that these sources describe.

Sample

The investigation does not pay attention to a specific sample considering the type of data acquisition.

Results

The study finds out that the number of executions has been increasing over the years since the initial one in 1982. The numbers of felony cases, nevertheless, have reduced significantly.

Interpretation of Results

The findings suggest that the constitutional requirement that give every citizen the right to live may not be effective in the way it functions. The persons in power need to be more vigilant to ensure that no one loses their life for no apparent reason.

Limitations

The way of analyzing the data seems to be quite technical for learners at the lower level although that may be advantageous to other researchers and learners at advanced stages.

Suggestions for Future Research

The investigators should identify the future causes of executions and felony murders as well inform on the rates.

Discussion Questions

  1. Is it right to take away the lives of persons who commit major offenses?
  2. What alternatives are available for murder?

Tinkler, Penny. “Rebellion, Modernity, and Romance: Smoking as a Gendered Practice in Popular Young Women’s Magazines, Britain 1918-1939.” Women’s Studies International Forum, (24)1: 111-122.

Research question

Tinkler seeks to identify the factors that led to the increased number of smoking among women considering that only a few members of the feminine gender engaged in the act before the First World War.

Hypothesis

The investigator hypothesizes that the intention to use women in World War I pushed many women to embrace manly acts including smoking which increased the number of women who practice the act.

Type of study

The researcher utilizes the evaluation methodology by evaluating past literacy sources that provide more information about the view women and the society had about females using tobacco. The author makes use of some of the widely acknowledged scholars which improves the article’s reliability.

Methods

The writer evaluates the literature in a random manner without giving special attention to any of the sources. The methodology gives readers the chance to acquire information from a broad category of surveyors who focused on the factors that pushed more women to enter into smoking. The method makes it easy to acquire data because one does not have to go to the field to acquire the information.

Sample

The investigator does not include any samples in the study. The primary reason for this is because he only acquires data from past records.

Results

The report concludes that a majority of women became smokers during the 1920s and the 1930s after the First World War when a majority of females had helped in the fight. The women’s magazine that showed the images of women smoking further boosted the character.

Interpretation of Results

The results indicate that the society keeps on changing from time to time and that what may appear abnormal at one time may become acceptable. The interpretation is valid because in the earlier years, smoking was not common in Europe.

Limitations

The evident limitation in the analysis is that the scholar does not conduct a research in the field to confirm his claim. The data in the article would be more influential if the writer relied on information from either a qualitative or quantitative study.

Suggestions for Future Research

The investigator should center the future study on whether the number of women smokers continues to increase or go down.

Discussion Questions

  1. Are more women likely to become smokers in the coming years or is the number set to go down.
  2. Do women put their bodies to the same health risk when smoking as men?

 

 

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