Conceptual Framework





Conceptual Framework

Development of Fiber Optic Technologies began in the early 20th century. Consequently, it has gained widespread implementation by parties in various sectors. Fiber Optic technology offers an efficient medium for the transmission of media from one point to another. This phenomenon has enabled it to gain wider implementation, as opposed to copper cables, in the 21st Century. This technology has a number of advantages over the traditional copper cabling solutions. It offers faster speeds in data transmission, through its expansive bandwidth. Similarly, it offers an efficient medium as it is not exposed to attenuation from electric and magnetic waves. Finally, its deployment is easier, due to the medium’s reduced heft. Many business and research activities involve transfer of vast volumes of data. In contemporary activities, sharing of outcomes is fundamental aspect, necessary for success. Consequently, an effective transmission medium is required. Fiber Optics may be implemented due to their advantages over copper-based media. Through the research, the benefits of implementing fiber optic networks over copper-based solutions are shown. Various metrics are used to highlight this.

The effectiveness of communications depends on the tools used. Consequently, the use of better transmission media is of importance. To understand the actual effectiveness of each media, a number of tests will be carried out. Firstly, the evaluation of losses per transmission distance will be carried out on each transmission media. Secondly, the bandwidth of transmission media will be determined. It is important to understand the components of transmission media, Co-axial cables consist of a copper core that is shielded by an air gap. This assists in reducing attenuation (Awan 20). The cable consists of an outer and inner part. The outer part reduces interference, while, the inner part carries the data signal. Coaxial cables have a number of advantages. They can be used near metallic items without significant signal loss. These cables are also cheaper to acquire and operate. To check continuity in coaxial cables, a multimeter may be used. This measure ensures that quantitative data can be transmitted at the required time. Various aspects are measured by the equipment. For instance, the attenuation, noise and delays need to be determined through the tests. The resistance, crosstalk, and mutual capacitance may also be determined. These measures are necessary, as quantitative analysis requires minimal data losses (Awan 25).

Fiber-optic cables consist of hollow fiberglass that is made from silica. The silica glass is used as a small pipe, in the transmission of light rays. The light serves as the data signal (Alwayn n.a). This technology has a number of advantages. For instance, it can be used for long-distance transmission of data. Similarly, it has little loss of data. Finally, it has high bandwidth capacity, and faster transmission speeds. To determine the effectiveness of such media, tests need to be carried out. Attenuation in fiber optics is caused by inefficiencies in manufacturing. For instance, the crystallization of glass from a melt may be carried out inappropriately, resulting into bends. Similarly, impurities such as Hydrogen may be added to the manufacturing process, resulting into imperfections. Optical fiber media may lose data through various mechanisms. Firstly, it may be due to absorption by the reflective material. This effect may be categorized as intrinsic or extrinsic. Data loss may also be a result of scattering. Here, a wave loses energy due to interaction with another particle. The scattering may be linear or non-linear Alwayn n.a).

Bends may also be a source of data loss in fiber optic media. Large bends (macrobending) cause power losses in the transmission wave. Conversely, bends in the core-cladding interface (microbending) may cause losses of around 1db/km (DeCusatis 7 DeCusatis n.a). The attenuation can be determined through calculation of the power output and power input. The total attenuation is the sum of all losses through the media. This variable is expressed in decibels per kilometer. The difference highlights the level of attenuation in the medium. The Bit rate of a medium is related to its bandwidth. To determine the extent of attenuation, this measure needs to be determined. To carry out the measurements, a power detector needs to be used (Fiber Optic Test Equipment and Testing Fiber Optic Links n.a).

From the measurements, it is expected that the fiber optic media will show less interference from external factors, and the effects of attenuation. The copper media are expected to show higher rates of interference from metallic objects, electrical and magnetic fields found in the environment. Similarly, tests on the copper media are expected to report lower bandwidth and speed, as compared to the fiber optics. Coaxial cables of the RG-11 standard are expected to offer a peak performance of 1.5 G/bits, at a bandwidth of around 3 GHz. Conversely, a single mode fiber optic cable can offer data rates of 10Gbps, at a bandwidth of 20 GHz (DeCusatis & DeCusatis n.a). Consequently, the advantages of fiber optic media are proven. From the findings, the data should be transmitted over larger distances, and at higher capacities.

Many operations involve the transfer of large volumes of information around a network. These operations are usually mission-critical. Various safeguards and considerations need to be placed during the implementation of fiber-optic communications. For instance, an efficient network design should be developed. Similarly, a number of losses are to be expected in the implementation of fiber optics. Firstly, a loss of around 0.3db is expected. This may rise to 0.75db if polished connectors are used with the media. A 0.3db loss is also expected for each slice. Fibers of different sources also experience various losses. For instance, 850nm sources have a loss of around 3db/km from the tests. Similarly, the tests should show that 1300nm sources have a signal loss of around 1db/km. Despite these losses, fiber optic media still provide greater efficiency in data transmission operations. Larger volumes of data can be transferred over larger distances, with fewer data integrity issues through use of this transmission media (Optical Fiber Training and Tutorials n.a).

















Works Cited

Alwayn, Vivek. “Optical-Cable Construction > Fiber-Optic Technologies.” Cisco Press: Source for Cisco Technology, CCNA, CCNP, CCIE Self-Study. N.p., 2004. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.

Awan, Shakil. Coaxial Electrical Circuits for Interference-Free Measurements. Stevenage: Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2011. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.

DeCusatis, Casimer, and Carolyn J. S. DeCusatis. Fiber Optic Essentials. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press, 2006. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.

Fiber Optic Test Equipment and Testing Fiber Optic Links. Kent, Wash: Light Brigade, 2004.

Optical Fiber Training and Tutorials. “Optical Fiber Loss and Attenuation | Fiber Optic Training & Tutorials – FAQ, Tips & News.” Fiber Optic Cable Supplier, Distributor – Fiber Optics For Sale Co. N.p., 2010. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.


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