Part 1

Question 1

Just-in-Time (JIT) learning is advantageous in training and learning since it can be automated by incorporating Web-based solutions that can be accessed at any time. Thus, in JIT training/learning, e-learning is valuable in the sense that it provides a platform for establish training/learning face-to-face through online facilities such as electronic job performance aids, online libraries, online modules for self study and networking systems that enable learners/trainees to find and question appropriate experts. JIT is valuable in training/learning since it offers a learning solution on a real-time basis. Additionally, JIT incorporated in training/learning expunges the desire for refresher training attributed to deprivation of newly attained knowledge and skills if not put to use when learners return to their jobs. JIT also allows learners/trainees to receive training at their own specification.

Question 2

One of the pitfalls of e learning involves the use of a mix of different media such as audio, sounds, text and animations to convey content and instruction. Another pitfall involves the e-learning’s minimalist nature in failing to include features proved to endorse learning. The third pitfall incorporates using e learning for relevant learning while the final pitfall involves the creation of a highly probing learning setting that provides learners with unrestricted access to navigate internet sites (Clark & Mayer, 2011). These pitfalls indeed compare with issues to be resolved in JIT learning. For instance, one of the issues involved in JIT learning is reflection. The need for reflection involves JIT’s framework in excluding reflection and practice in a setting. Moreover, quality is another issue in both JIT and e learning since it involves providing instruction that is relevant to the subject (Weintraub & Martineau, 2002).

Question 3

One of the questions that need consideration in reading research studies in learning is the similarity of the learners in the research study to other learners. The subsequent question involves basing conclusions on an experimental research design. The third question focuses on the replication of experimental results. The fourth question focuses on the measurement of learning through tests that measure application. The final question involves the reflection of the data analysis on practical and statistical significance (Clark & Mayer, 2011). Good research provides efficient information on designing learning since it mainly focuses on instructional effectiveness. Thus, using good research enables the designer to configure a learning module that incorporates instructional efficiency to assist learners in gaining accurate knowledge and content in the process of learning.

Part 2

The statement, “instructional designers should consider how words and pictures work together to create meaning for the learner”, actually refers to the use of texts and pictorial representations in order to ensure cognitive learning and response within learners (Clark & Mayer, 2011). Instructional designers should consider how positive the integration of texts and representation is to the learners in order to avoid spreading the wrong content or meaning to the learner. The graphics identified include decorative, for instance, a visual of an instructor displaying instructions, representational, for example, a photograph or screen capture, relational, for instance, a pie chart or a line graph, transformational, for example, a video depicting operation of an equipment and interpretive, for instance, a graphic diagram of an equipment (Tomei, 2013). For learning to be promoted efficiently, it is more advantageous to combine representational and transformational graphics. This is because combining the two will assist in demonstrating procedures and contextualizing practice in online simulation.
























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