Migration as a Security Threat
Migration as a Security Threat
Immigration is currently being perceived by the host states as a security threat. It has also been perceived as a threat to international stability. Today, security is not only taken to be the protection of states’ citizens and borders from other states by the government, but it is also taken to be the states’ ability of protecting the citizens, whether social groups or individuals, from others non-states security threats and actors that are non-based (Balzacq & Carrera, 2005). This is the main reason why the immigrants are taken to be a security threat. When the immigrants are mentioned in this course, they can be both legal and illegal. Legal immigrants enter the host state as required by the law while illegal ones enter the state through such means as human trafficking, amongst other means. It is significant that migration be of security concern in the European countries and North America.
In the year 2007, Mark Krikoran of the Center for Immigration Studies (Executive Director) and James Carafano of the Heritage Foundation (security expert) agreed that the immigration system and the borders, especially the southern one, were both out of control and dysfunctional (CFR, 2007). One of the strategies implemented to ensure that the immigration issues were competently dealt with, was to make sure that the borders and the immigration systems were both put under control and made functional once more. Other strategies such as enforcing the law, amnesty and incorporating guest worker programs are also used although they have proved to pose a significant challenge as a far as the immigration and security issues are concerned.
The guest worker programs have proved to be incompetent as far as far as control of immigration is concerned. If anything, they will catalyze the immigration. Guest worker programs will encourage more immigrants to come into the host countries creating illegal mass immigrations. The political pressure that comes with mass immigration will pressurize the governments to grant amnesties. Such amnesties increase security risks, overpopulation, employment issues, amongst other issues that are tied along. This vicious cycle then continues.
Although immigrants from all states have been considered to be of concern to the host states, immigrants from the Islamic countries have been given more attention than those from other states (Dannreuther, 2007). These Islamic states are mostly from the Middle East regions. This is mainly due to their organized crimes history, the extent they have been known to go when ‘fighting for their rights’ and their beliefs as far as the Islamic religion is concerned. The immigrants believing in the Islamic religion have also been of more concern as compared to the Christian immigrants. For example, a country such as Netherlands has decided to introduce a ban on covering the face, which is known as the “burqa ban”. This ban is being put in place in order to control terrorism in the country.
Although this ban does not include the burqa from Afghan, it is mostly directed to the Islamic women. There are indigenous Muslims in Netherlands; however, most of the Muslims are immigrants from the warring Middle East countries. The ban on the face-covering is meant to increase the chances of identity. Islamic women, as well as men, have been known to initiate in terrorism attacks especially as far as suicide bombings are concerned. The extensive whole body covering places them at a greater advantage especially when compared to other non-Islamic women or women whose religion does not require any extreme covering (Dannreuther, 2007). As far as individual or group religions are concerned, it is significant to understand that national security is of greater importance.
Other expressions that may be considered as indications that freedoms are being abused include a similar law in France, where Islamic women were banned from wearing headscarves. This policy was applicable mostly in public areas and government institutions. A row ensued in the Netherlands where a cartoonist made a seemingly harmless drawing of Allah, a move that is forbidden by the Muslim law. This brought into question the freedom of expression versus religious belief. Switzerland also introduced a referendum on minarets, bringing the nation to a near brink of religious disagreement especially when it came to expression and religion.
Migration started becoming a security threat when the immigrants started getting involved in terrorism activities. These were mostly the illegal immigrants. These cases started taking place in the late 20th century. It is common knowledge that one tends to be more careful with a person who issues threats than one who does not. Countries from the Middle East have known to issue and even act when it comes to attacking states in North America and Europe. The Most affected nation is the United States of America especially when taking into account the 9/11 attack. Osama bin Laden was said to have trained with the American Military before resigning and going back to his state. Such a country has more reasons of being cautious of the immigrants than other countries that do not have a huge influx of immigrants.
The protection of one identity for another is bound to create a couple of more problems than there are (Balzacq & Carrera, 2005). These problems include discrimination related problems, equal and human rights concerns public demonstrations, amongst others. This is because no identity should be held superior to the other. However, it should be noted that the security of the citizens of a nation is of the utmost significance. Most immigrants are refugees from warring countries. They migrate because their countries are no longer secure. In order to prevent such occurrences in the host states, some measures have to be taken. Scrutinizing the immigrants’ identity, more than the citizens’ identity is one of the actions that are considered.
Organized crimes are all over the world. However, most groups are from the Islamic countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Somalia, Egypt, amongst others. Other countries known for having organized crime are Russia, Italy, South Korea, Mexico, amongst others. Immigrants from these countries are known to pose a greater risk than other immigrants. Organized crimes in the Middle East Muslim countries form in the name of fighting the Jihad War. This is known as a holy war and so they are known to commit suicide in the name of the war. Since they attract a lot of attention from the immigration department, immigrants from these countries tend to enter host countries using illegal means thus the great security concerns.
Security is only one of the other concerns raised whenever the migration issue is brought up. However, it is significant that the governments pay the utmost attention to this concern. The European and North American countries have been a target for many years to most terrorism groups. The governments of these countries must put their guard up even in the migration department.
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