Modernized Political Systems
The need for modernized political systems has been apparent since the first half of the millennium. Many leaders have used the typology of leadership on the available formal structures of the state. The number of formal structures determines the standardization of democratic forms and moves that the existing leadership may use. Government institutions differ from one regime to another as demonstrated in the discussed leaderships of Nehru and Mao in India and China respectively.
How Jawaharlal Nehru and top INC leaders modernized the political systems of India
Jawaharlal Nehru returned to India from London in 1912 where he joined the Indian National Congress (INC). However, INC leaders dismayed Nehru’s elitism. In 1913, Nehru together with a few others led a campaign. He was faced with the challenge of uniting a vast population in terms of culture, language and religion in India. In 1930, Nehru became the leader of the INC party and over the time, he was able to establish various reforms in the economic, social and educational front successfully. His policies included non-alignment and the principles of peaceful coexistence.
In 1942, Nehru was jailed by the British, for his campaign on Home Rule for India. This was a call to have India to be an independent and self-governing dominion. He was released in 1945 after three years later in jail. After his release, immediately began negotiations over the future of India and its independence. He led India through international negotiations up until the emergence of the Sino-Indian War in the year 1962.
The Sino-Indian war resulted a major losses and suffering within the Indian force. People were killed, others went missing and others were captures by the People’s Liberation Army of China. This was a humiliating and frustrating defeat for Nehru and it highly contributed to his declining health that saw the end of his career (Mitra 98). However, Nehru changed the leadership of India from three policy choices and mechanisms. Nehru is credited for having sustained India’s weak democracy and bringing some major forms of stability in India. This was seen to be was seen to be breakthrough from the major lapse the country had undergone. Nehru has been described as a “pivotal actor” for the fact that he gradually accumulated visionary leadership in India and he is remembered for leading India to the world’s largest democracy, a nation dedicated to neutrality in the cold war and most importantly, a nation dedicated to quick development in the field of education, economics and technology (Manion 29).
How Mao Zedong and top CCP leaders modernized the political systems of China
Mao Zedong’s leadership has been hotly debated over the time. Unlike his Indian counterpart Nehru who joined an already existing party, Mao founded the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and just like Nehru, he played a major role in changing and improving governance in China. He elected top officials in CCP who worked hand in hand with him to establish the Red Army and the development of a defensible base in the province of Jiangxi in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Through his governance, Mao Zedong improved many political initiatives and transformed China through land reforms, agriculture and provision of medical services throughout China. Together with his party officials, Mao led the country to the establishment of People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949.
In 1958, Mao strongly advocated for a self-reliant campaign in the rural areas of China. The campaign was dubbed “Great Leap Forward” which later failed and saw Mao shift many responsibilities over to other leaders and withdrew from independent decision making. Unlike Nehru, saw the importance of delegating duties to other leaders of his party and consulted the top leaders in various projects and decisions. However, this did not stop him from the restless challenge of seeking capital restoration in the PRC.
In foreign policy, Mao ended all relations with the Soviet Union without consultations. He felt that his delegation was not visionary for the development of PRC and he feared that the delegation would foster political and social inequalities. He therefore continued to referee a struggle between those who gained from the Cultural Revolution and protected its policies. Unlike Nehru who made his daughter an heir, Mao appointed one of his ministers of defense as his heir who led China into the arrest of major radicals one month after Mao’s death, which saw the collapse of developments in China and all that Mao fought for.
The Nation-Building Theme in the Movie “Asoka” (2001)
The Movie (Asoka 2001) focuses on how India was made up of many small kingdoms in the 1900 B.C.E. An empire known as the “Mauryan Empire” was founded in 322 B.C.E. During this time, a nobleman named Chandragupta Maurya conquered and reined on the Northern part of India. Maurya used his army and spies to protect him against his enemies. After his death, his son Ashoka succeeded him. Ashoka conquered a brutal battle against the kingdom of Kalinga. A nation building theme can be learnt when Ashoka later rejected violence and converted to Buddhism. This conversion saw Ashoka give up on wars and urged his subjects to treat one another with respect. However, this did not stop Ashoka from practicing slavery and keeping all the land that was conquered by the Mauryans. Ashoka spread Buddhist values such as upholding morality and responsibility allover his empire.
The Nation-Building Theme in the Movie “Jumong” (2006)
In the movie (Jumong 2006), it is evident that the demise of Josun was partly caused by the Han and because of internal struggles. This occurred a number of years before a hero named Jumong was born. Korea was initially divided into several kingdoms, which were always at war that led to the downfall of Korea. In the theme, the movie focuses on politics, a number of foreign and domestic issues, which led to the formation and merging of both North and South Korea. The nation-building theme is evident when the loss of national sovereignty becomes a top concern to the Han Chinese and the patriotism of the Korean people. The theme also condemns the recklessness and emotionalism, which it brings out as contempt on patriots and appeasers alike. Another nation-building theme is depicted when the issue of internal disunity, which saw the downfall of Jusun, is overlooked. The theme addresses major issues such as Korean’s attitude towards politics, leadership and democracy. Another notable nation-building theme in the movie is the uncompromising heroes of Korea who are willing to sacrifice comfort, prestigious positions and even their lives in the effort to steer them away from the Korean soil.
The role of women in nation building as demonstrated in the movie was to play the role caretakers to soldiers who are wounded after going to war for the sake of their country. The women nurse the wounds of the fighters and fend them until they are strong enough to go back to war.
The Nation-Building Theme in the Movie “The Ten Commandments” (1956)
The movie “The Ten Commandments” was produce in 1956. It movie was created by an Australian named Barrett and was inspired by a juvenile-court judge who confronted and accused a 16-year-old boy of stealing a car. The judge quoted to the young man one of the Ten Commandments. Apparently, the boy was oblivious to the commandments and therefore the judge pardoned him and gave him a Bible so that he could read and obey The Ten Commandments. The theme of the movie raises a debate as to whether God’s laws should govern men or whether men should be ruled their leaders. This raises the question whether men are the property of God or property of the state.
A nation building theme that can be learned in this movie is that, whether humans are governed by law or God’s law, they are obligated to observe mandatory rules and failure to that, they will be condemned by both the state and God. The movies other nation-building theme focuses on the importance maintaining good relationships across the region. The role of women in nation building is portrayed in the movie shortly after Moses is born and the Hebrew rulers order for the slaying of all firstborn males. Moses’ Mother takes the initiative of hiding his newly born son by the banks of River Nile and two women rescue the infant (a princess and her servant). Moses later became a young general and led victorious wars in the Ancient Ethiopia, entering Egypt and forming alliances with the conquered Egyptians where he is condemned of building a treasure city. Another nation-building trait that is learnt from the movie is how Moses fights for supremacy in the land and institutes reforms that abolish mistreatment of slaves.
The Bach Việt 百越 Bai Yue
The Bach Việt 百越 Bai Yue, denotes various units of people who lived in Southern China and Northern Vietnam in the first Millennium in a state called “Yue”. The people of Yue were fluent in agriculture and technology especially in shipbuilding. However, the Chinese people viewed them as barbarians because of their poor living conditions and tattoos. They were later evicted when the Chinese civilization spread into southern China in the first half of the millennium AD. However, states that the Yue speech is not unlimited to fragmentation of references and word in other languages such as Chinese. The Chinese and the Yue have many mutual grammatical features and syllable structures (Mailer and Mei 55).
Inter-marriages in the first half of the millennium saw part the Yue largely become a part of the Chinese people. The term “Yue” was later used to represent a region rather than a culture. The Baiyue have been largely compared to the evicted tribes from Israel. This has contributed to a major speculation among the Chinese historians raising questions such as the ethnicity and originality of the Baiyue (57). They have been linked partly to the people of South China and partly to the people of Vietnam where most of them settled since the first half of the Century. The Yue culture has been practiced in some parts of China and Vietnam. In addition, a number of Chinese and Vietnamese have since adapted a number of words and characters from the Bayue (Mailer and Mei 59).
Mailer, N. and Mei. Minimal Old Chinese and Later Han Chinese: A Companion to Grammata Serica Recensa. 1976. Print.
Manion, F. Contemporary Chinese Politics. 2009. Print.
Mitra, S. When Rebels Become Stakeholders. Democracy, Agency and Social Change in India. 2009. Print.
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