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Population

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Population

The course topic to be addressed is population. The reason for addressing this topic is to discover the policies that have been put in place by nations to address the issue of population growth. This relates to the concerns of global population growth, and particularly the level to which overpopulation leads to issues such as world hunger. The topic relates to class content in that it is part of the discussion on issues affecting the world today with others being globalization, gender inequality, immigration, poverty, and race/ethnicity. The paper addresses the topic of population by looking mainly at how China has in the past enacted a policy to control its population growth. Therefore the question that this paper seeks to answer is “since the “one-child” policy in China is no longer in place, what has been its impact on Chinese culture?”

Background

According to Jing, China is one of the most populated countries globally (392). Since 1972, China adopted the One-Child Policy, which was meant to improve the issue of overpopulation. The author adds that the problem was seen as a hindrance to the country’s growth and development. While the government emphasized on the benefits the policy has had on the country since its enactment, it has been seen as a controversial rule and has over the years been condemned for its negative impacts. Wang et al. postulates that the policy formally began to phase out at the end of 2015 and the onset of 2016 (1). The One-Child Policy was exceptional to a number of groups, including those in rural areas and ethnic minorities. Lim gives 2007 statistics whereby 36% of the country’s populace was subjected the one- child law, with 53% of the population allowed to add another child if the first one was a girl (1). A violation of the policy led to strict fines imposed by the provincial governments.

Jing posits that the policy prevented approximately 400 million births (393).  Wang however disputed such assertion claiming that the One-Child Policy did not have much impact of Chinas population (1). This because countries like Iran and Thailand which did not impose similar measures saw a decline in fertility. Lim articulates that over time the policy began to be lifted in some provinces, as sociologist and demographers raised issues of concern such as falling employee numbers and increasing social costs (1).  In the beginning of 2016, the One-Child Policy was changed to a two-child policy whose aim was to “improve the balanced development of the population” (Wang 1).

Methodology

Wang, Feng et al. “The end of China’s one-child policy.” Brookings, 30 March 2016. https://www.brookings.edu/articles/the-end-of-chinas-one-child-policy/. Accessed 15 June 2018.

The source is an article published at Brookings’ website by Feng Wang, Baochang Gu, and Yong Cai  in March 30, 2016. The source was selected as it gives detailed information on One-Child Policy and its end. The authors begin by stating that 1 January saw the Chinese government fully lift the ban of the One-Child Policy that had existed for 35 years. Another reason why this source was selected is that the authors give facts on why the change of the policy delayed. The authors claim that the change occurred a decade later; leaders in China used it as a part of their political legitimacy. It was a bureaucracy that had become deeply rooted in policy enforcement. Additionally, China’s population was thoroughly brainwashed by a social discourse that had invalidly held population growth for almost all China’s economic and social problems. The source also clearly brings out the impacts that the One-Child Policy had on the country’s population.

Strengths

The source is reliable as it comprehensively discusses the One-Child Policy and how it came to an end. It also gives the impacts that such policy had on the country’s population. The authors argue the policy was among the costliest lessons which came as a result of an erroneous public policymaking. In addition, the country’s decline in fertility was apprehended before the policy was launched but even in nations that did not have a similar policy, fertility declines were also noted. The policy created more than 100 million one child families today with the authors arguing that the harm it caused is irreparable and long-term. China also had over two decades of abnormal sex thus it now how a large number of men appraised to be between 20 and 40 million. The working population is also declining as many are aging.

The authors are qualified to answer the questions. For instance Feng Wang is a Sociology Professor at the University of California and Fudan University in Shanghai. He is also a former Brookings expert. The authors also did the research as they published the article on the Journal of Theoretical Social Psychology which publishes original research, articles which emphasize new idea, reviews, and special features that are intended to inspire developments in the social psychological theory. The source is recent as it was published in March 2016 which was two months after the ban was lifted. Therefore, the information given was up-to-date and accurate.

Weaknesses

The source is biased as it focuses more on the negative impacts that the One-Child Policy had and barely addresses some of the positive impacts. The authors also conducted a general research and did not base their research on a given sample size, therefore it is likely data errors occurred and the chances of detecting them were low.

Jing, Yijia. “The One‐Child Policy Needs An Overhaul.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 32.2 (2013): 392-399.

The source is a peer-reviewed journal article by Yijia Jing published in 2013. The reason for selecting this essay is because it started by discussing the history of One-Child Policy and what pushed China to implement such rule. The author begins by discussing the advent of family planning in the Chinese culture. He states that the idea was first introduced by Yinchu Ma, in 1957- an economist who proposed a governmental control over fertility.  The idea was publicly condemned. It was not until 1970s when China’s population had immensely growth to 853.3 million when the State Council started to include a population control as an indicator of the country’s economic development.  Another reason why I decided to use this article is because the author did a comprehensive research on the issue and relied on research from other experts to carry out his study.

Strengths

The source is reliable as the author uses his ideas which he backs with evidence from other researches on the same subject. The author also cites all the information sourced from other studies. The article is peer reviewed and is published within the last ten years meaning that the information given is reliable. The article is written by a renowned and respected author in the field of policy analysis. Dr. Yijia Jing is a professor of public administration and a Director of the Center for Collaborative Governance Research at Fudan University. The author has published a number of articles in peer- reviewed journals.

Weaknesses

Considering the ban was lifted in January 2016, the article missed the details on the One-Child Policy that occurred from 2013 up to date. Therefore, it can be seen as an old source as it does not give information on the measures that were taken to lift the ban. It instead advocated for the ban to be lifted as the policy had negative impacts on the population of China.  The article is biased as it misses the positive impacts of the policy and focuses more on the negative effects.

Lim, Louisa. “Cases of Forced Abortions Surface in China.” NPR. National Public Radio, 23 Apr 2007. <http://www.npr.org/2007/04/23/9766870/cases-of-forced-abortions-surface-in-china>. Accessed 15 June 2018.

The article by Lim Louisa was published on the National Public Radio, Inc. website in April 2007.  The reason I chose this article is because it raises emotions by giving actual cases of forced abortions in China. The abortions were as a result of the imposed “One Child Policy”. The author gives actual cases of forced abortions given by unmarried women who were forced to abort their first children.  For instance, it gives a case of a married couple who thought they could have a second child and pay fines like many other couples did, only for them to be visited by ten family planning officials and forced to abort. The purpose of this article was to raise awareness on the cruelty of the One-Child Policy and the emotional turmoil it left to the victims.

Strengths

The source is from a reliable website; that is the National Public Radio. The author reports on actual incidences of forced abortions in China. This was called for by the policy so as to control the country’s issue of overpopulation. The source uses actual cases from several Chinese citizens who claimed that they were forced to abort without giving any consent. Some claim that after refusing to authorize the abortions, the family officials signed the papers. The author- Louisa Lim- is a renowned journalist who has won several awards and has reported for China for over a decade. She also reported for the National Public Radio. She previously worked as BBC correspondent in Beijing.

Weaknesses

The source is not recent as it was published in 2007. This means that even though it gave credible reasons why the policy needed to be brought to an end, it does not provide information on when the policy ended. Also, the source focused only on one subject to show the negative effects of the One-Child Policy. It does not give other reasons why the policy was detrimental to China’s population. Some of the shortcomings in the way the research was carriedis that it failed to seek information from the family planning officials involved in forced abortions. This means that they focused their research on victims and failed to gather information on why such procedure were carried out.

Summary

From the above discussion, it is clear that One-Child Policy in China had detrimental impacts on the country’s population which continue to be felt until today. All sources succeeded in showing the impacts that the policy had and not in any way did they contradict each other. Therefore, the sources give enough information and are reliable in answering the research question

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Jing, Yijia. “The One‐Child Policy Needs An Overhaul.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol. 32, no. 2, 2013, pp. 392-399.

Lim, Louisa. “Cases of Forced Abortions Surface in China.” NPR. National Public Radio, 23 Apr 2007,

<http://www.npr.org/2007/04/23/9766870/cases-of-forced-abortions-surface-in-china>. Accessed 15 June 2018

Wang, Feng et al. “The end of China’s one-child policy.” Brookings, 30 March 2016, https://www.brookings.edu/articles/the-end-of-chinas-one-child-policy/. Accessed 15 June 2018

 

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