Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Factors


Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Factors




Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Factors

In overview, several high priority behavioral factors are responsible for influencing the occurrence of obesity as a health population in low-income Latino communities. As established previously, behavior may influence overconsumption among underprivileged Latinos, further leading them closer to the risk of attaining obesity. Through the proposed premises of the Theory of Planned Behavior, it is evident that subjective attitudes, norms, and behavioral control assume an imperative role in understanding obesity among individuals (Conner, Norman & Bell, 2002). In relation to the rates of obese people among low income Latinos, subjective norms among friends and family have been established as influential precursors of poor eating habits. Even though some of these norms may be healthy, some actually pose a risk on the health of people within this particular community. In addition, the impact of immigration on Latinos may also influence nutritional intake due to the dominating factor of the American culture.

High Priority Behavioral Factors of Obesity in Low-Income Latinos

Hence, from the illustration, it is evident that behavioral factors pose a significant effect on the increasing rates of obesity in low-income Latino communities. One of these factors comprises the definition of a healthy lifestyle among most Latino parents. Consequently, the manner in which Latino parents delineate the factors that are part of a healthy lifestyle is considerably different and influential on the increase of obesity. Accordingly, Latino parents do not normally consider physical activity and nutrition as imperative in leading healthy lifestyles. For them, healthy children are more inclined to be stable in social and emotional terms. Simply, they believe that a child who engages in playful activities, laughs, interacts, and possesses good manners is healthy. Therefore, a child who is well adjusted sentimentally and socially is healthy enough based on the convictions of Latino parents and their culture respectively.

Usually, Latino parents associate the weight of a child to general health. Interestingly, as long as a child is not too fat or too thin, then he or she is healthy. In addition to this, more parents are more inclined to express worry and anxiety for thin children. For them, children that are plump or chubby are adjusted well in terms of their health. Aside from these illustrations, Latinos also attribute other factors as influential in affecting healthy lifestyles. Specifically, constraints in time, restricted resources, and environmental efforts limit Latinos from exercising healthy lifestyles. For example, most parents understand the positive implications that nutritious foods will impose on their children. However, by the culmination of the day, they are too overwhelmed to create healthy meals. In addition to this, low-income Latinos are largely restricted from accessing supermarkets, and possess little or no control over the foodstuffs that their children consume in school on a daily basis.

Identified Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Factors

In this respect, it is possible to establish the main predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors among low-income Latino communities. One of the predisposing factors evident among Latinos comprises the convictions in health and dietary concerns. As established, low-income Latinos view a healthy lifestyle differently from other persons. For them, healthy children are those that are optimal in terms of their social and emotional aspects (Schmied, Parada, Horton, Madanat & Ayala, 2014). Accordingly, these predisposing factors influence behavior considerably. Notably, the association of healthy lifestyles with mental acuity rather than physical health significantly affects the focus on obesity. As such, it influences participation in the desired behavior, without necessarily understanding the negative consequences that come with this particular activity. Additionally, convictions encompassing body shape also influence obesity levels among low-income Latinos. As stated, children who are fat who are widely considered to be healthy within this respective community.


Enabling factors in this sense comprise physical factors that influence incentives to partake or change certain behaviors. In this particular case, one of these factors comprises accessibility of time for food preparation. For most Latino parents, it is difficult to cook healthy meals due to several limitations. For instance, due to their socioeconomic status, a large number of Latino parents are unable to access supermarkets and healthy food. As an outcome, they end up providing cheap and unhealthy meals to their children on a daily basis (James, Arcaya, Parker, Tucker-Seeley & Subramanian, 2014). Additionally, most Latino parents are unable to provide healthy meals to their children due to the tiring implications that their occupations impose. Consequently, most arrive late to their homes. Moreover, they are usually tired and thus unable to prepare decent healthy meals. In addition, the inaccessibility to purchase healthy food due to their prices affects low-income Latino parents and limits them from facilitating a healthy lifestyle for their children and families.

Lastly, the reinforcing factors are facets aimed at rewarding persons for participation on desired behavioral modifications. The intention to control weight is an illustration of a reinforcing factor for this case. Despite the high rates of obesity among Latino children, parents and teenagers are considerably aware of the defects that such a condition imposes on their society (Garcia, Duckett, Saewyc & Bearinger, 2007). As such, most of them establish factors such as physical inactivity as influential in establishing obesity. Hence, Latino parents in low-income communities have expressed the desire to control overweight by facilitating physical activity and encouraging participation among their children. In conclusion, the factors outlined above illustrate some of the challenges that low-income Latinos experience routinely in relation to the rate of obesity within their communities. In light of the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors, it is clear that behavior poses a direct impact on overconsumption.






















Conner, M., Norman, P., & Bell, R. (2002). The theory of planned behavior and healthy eating. Health Psychology, 21(2), 194-201.

Garcia, C., Duckett, L., Saewyc, E., & Bearinger, L. (2007). Perceptions of health among immigrant Latino adolescents from Mexico. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 25(2), 81-91.

James, P., Arcaya, M., Parker, D., Tucker-Seeley, R., & Subramanian, S. (2014). Do minority and poor neighborhoods have higher access to fast-food restaurants in the United States? Health & Place, 29, 10-17.

Schmied, E., Parada, H., Horton, L., Madanat, H., & Ayala, G. (2014). Family support is associated with behavioral strategies for healthy eating among Latinas. Health Education &Behavior: The Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education, 41(1), 34-41.



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