Production and Operations Management
Production Processes and Techniques
Production is the creation of goods and services by making use of land, labour, capital, entrepreneurship, and knowledge. Often, there are four types of production processes, namely: manufacturing, assembling, continuous, and intermittent. Manufacturing is a complex procedure that makes new materials by completely altering the physical and chemical nature of the initial inputs. Assembling entails putting parts of various items together to form one final product. On the other hand, continuous production engages lengthy nonstop mechanisms that lead to the creation of final goods after an extended period. Lastly, the intermittent process entails short production intervals adjusted from time to time to make dissimilar commodities. The primary techniques used by most companies to improve the quality of their finished goods are:
- Computer-aided design (CAD) – It is a method used by computer experts to design products.
- Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) – Involves use of computers to manufacture commodities.
- Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) – It is a technique that combines both CAD and CAM.
- Flexible manufacturing – Entails use of machinery to do a variety of tasks leading to the production of numerous finished goods.
- Lean manufacturing – It is an efficient technique that requires minimal use of inputs.
- Mass customization – It allows the modification of items to meet the demands of various classes of customers.
Evolution of Production to Operations Management
Overall, production is the creation of goods and services, and operations management is its second but most important segment. The first part is called production management, and it encompasses all the things managers do to aid a firm create goods or services. Operations management is a specialty under production management that is involved in the actual conversion of raw materials into consumable services or goods.
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