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ROLE OF STATE AND LOCAL LAW ENFORCEMENT AND THE PRIVATE SECTOR

ROLE OF STATE AND LOCAL LAW ENFORCEMENT AND THE PRIVATE SECTOR

 

 

 

 

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Role of State and Local Law Enforcement and the Private Sector

Maintenance of security is important for any society to prosper. There are many institutions responsible for this in different countries. In the United States, security duties are shared at the federal, state and local levels. At the federal level, bodies such as the Department of Homeland Security work to defend against terrorist threats. For effectiveness in these operations, federal security organs have developed partnerships with local and state security institutions. The importance of such partnerships is underlined by the September 11 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. Inability of security institutions in the country to share information is stated as one of the reasons why the attacks succeeded. The role of state and local police institutions is, therefore, crucial in achieving homeland security[1].

There are various ways that the Department of Homeland Security shares information with State and Local police. The term ‘fusion’ refers to management of information flow between various security organs in the country. Following execution of the 9/11 Act, State and Local Fusion centers were established. The role of these institutions is to share information regarding terrorist and criminal activities, as well as any other hazards. Parties such as Federal security institutions, state and local police take part in Fusion Centers. Private sector entities, that own critical infrastructure, also take part in the Fusion centers. The federal government significantly values these institutions and regards them as a national priority.[2]

In consequence, the government provides them with workforces, financial and technical support. To guide the government’s efforts, the DHS was designated as the custodian of such entities. In March of 2009, it was estimated that there existed 70 fusion centers across the countries. The DHS allocated 34 of its operations specialists to the centers, to offer a link between the two bodies. The 9/11 Act also gave rise to the ITACG. The mandate of this body is to provide a platform for security organs to share information in the NCTC. The ITACG achieves this by allowing state and local police officers the opportunity to serve in the NCTC, alongside federal officers. Therefore, it enables local organs access to federally coordinated intelligence information.[3] Following the 9/11 attacks, local police forces have adopted an approach centered on intelligence, rather than criminal investigations[4]. To assist in these efforts, local police forces have adopted Community Policing. Through this approach, police officers are able to network with their constituents. This strategy enables them to gain trust from the locals as well as knowledge of the people living there. As a result, there is an influx of relevant information from the locals, to the police. Therefore, local police act in first responder and first preventer roles in homeland security. For instance, a local police officer uncovered a homegrown jihadist threat.

The Private Sector owns and manages a majority of American critical infrastructure. Such resources include telephone and railway networks, banking, manufacturing, water and electricity supplies. In consequence, the government has stepped up its efforts to share information with private security intelligence. As a result, an executive order was used to create the National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC). The council usually consists of CEO’s from related companies. Through this platform, the Secretary to the DHS is availed up-to-date information regarding the nation’s critical infrastructure. One of the roles of the NIAC has been the development of Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISAC) in the private sector. Through ISACs, different companies have been able to share information with their peers and government agencies, regarding the state of critical infrastructure and threats to them. Through these institutions, the private sector plays a relevant role in homeland security efforts.[5]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

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Bloom, Stephanie C. “The Department of Homeland Security: Past, Present and Future.” Praeger Security International. Last modified 2013. http://psi.praeger.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/doc.aspx??x=x&newindex=1&q=+Logan-homeland+security+and+intelligence&c=&d=%2fbooks%2fgpg%2fC9095C%2fC9095C-1608.xml&i=1&original_url=doc.aspx%3fx%3dx%26newindex%3d1%26q%3d%2bLogan-homeland%2bsecurity%2band%2bintelligence%26c%3d%26d%3d%252fbooks%252fgpg%252fC9095C%252fC9095C-1608.xml%26i%3d1&ws=WS_PSI&as=doc.aspx&token=57801F3B1D0B26E58543B4F4B37D93AA&count=.!.

Collins, Pamela A., and Ryan K. Baggett. “Private Security Intelligence and Homeland Security.” Praeger Security International. Last modified 2013. http://psi.praeger.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/doc.aspx?d=/books/gpg/C9095C/C9095C-2057.xml.

Cordner, Gary, and Kathryn Scarborough. “Connecting Police Intelligence with Military and National Intelligence.” Praeger Security International. Last modified 2013. http://psi.praeger.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/doc.aspx?d=/books/gpg/C9095C/C9095C-1860.xml.

United States. “Fusion Center Guidelines Developing and Sharing Information and Intelligence in a New World: Guidelines for Establishing and Operating Fusion Centers at the Local, State, Tribal, and Federal Level: Law Enforcement Intelligence Component.” Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2005. <http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS63625>.

Werther, Guntram A. “Fusion Centers and Beyond: The Future of Intelligence Assessment in an Information Deluged Era.” Praeger Security International. Last modified 2013. http://psi.praeger.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/doc.aspx?d=/books/gpg/C9095C/C9095C-2488.xml.

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[1] United States, “Fusion Center Guidelines Developing and Sharing Information and Intelligence in a New World: Guidelines for Establishing and Operating Fusion Centers at the Local, State, Tribal, and Federal Level: Law Enforcement Intelligence Component,” (2005).

[2] Guntram Werther, “Fusion Centers and Beyond: The Future of Intelligence Assessment in an Information Deluged Era,” Praeger Security International, Last modified 2013. http://psi.praeger.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/doc.aspx?d=/books/gpg/C9095C/C9095C-

[3] Stephanie Bloom, “The Department of Homeland Security: Past, Present and Future,” Praeger Security International, Last modified 2013. http://psi.praeger.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/doc.aspx??x=x&newindex=1&q=+Logan-homeland+security+and+intelligence&c=&d=%2fbooks%2fgpg%2fC9095C%2fC9095C-1608.xml&i=1&original_url=doc.aspx%3fx%3dx%26newindex%3d1%26q%3d%2bLogan-homeland%2bsecurity%2band%2bintelligence%26c%3d%26d%3d%252fbooks%252fgpg%252fC9095C%252fC9095C-1608.xml%26i%3d1&ws=WS_PSI&as=doc.aspx&token=57801F3B1D0B26E58543B4F4B37D93AA&count=.!.

[4] Gary Cordner and Kathryn Scarborough, “Connecting Police Intelligence with Military and National Intelligence,” Praeger Security International, Last modified 2013, http://psi.praeger.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/doc.aspx?d=/books/gpg/C9095C/C9095C-1860.xml.

 

[5] Pamela Collins and Ryan Baggett, “Private Security Intelligence and Homeland Security,” Praeger Security International, Last modified 2013, http://psi.praeger.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/doc.aspx?d=/books/gpg/C9095C/C9095C-2057.xml.

 

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