South Asia, East Asia, & Global Powers
Answer to Question 1
Urbanization is the process of more people moving from rural areas to towns and cities. In Southeast Asia, economic development has pushed more people to search a better life in cities. Besides, the improvement in agricultural machinery has meant that less labor is required to do the same job, and job opportunities have become minimized in the countryside (Ooi and Kai 28). Consequently, as more labor shifts from agricultural to industrial, food insecurity has increased among the urban poor who are the majority in most cities of Southeast Asian countries.
Rapid urbanization in most of the Southeast Asian countries has strained the ability of the city administrators to provide social services. Although it is easier to provide services like clean portable water, sanitation, healthcare, and education in built-up areas, the demand for these services has outstripped supply. As a result, many of the urban dwellers have been pushed to live in slums under squalid conditions (Ooi and Kai 29). Therefore, rapid urbanization has exposed the cities’ lack of capacity to provide for a burgeoning population.
Answer to Question 2
A growing world population needs to be able to feed itself. As such, the Green Revolution has been described as a combination of research and technological advancements that increased food production throughout the world. Led by Nazareno Strampelli and Norman Borlaug, the initiatives to increase food production were seen as the only way to save humanity from itself due to increasing populations (Salvi, Porfiri and Ceccarelli 2). Advances in technology meant that genetic studies and biotechnology could be combined with agricultural machinery to improve efficiency and productivity. Some of the major changes that are credited with the Green Revolution were the improved seeds and mechanical farming practices. The production of high yielding seeds [HYS], especially of wheat and rice that were resistant to some of the notable diseases, increased yields and reduced pre and post harvest loses. Also, increased use of agricultural machinery put more land under cultivation while at the same time improving the efficiency (Salvi, Porfiri and Ceccarelli 4). Consequently, the production of HYS and adoption of agricultural machinery led to high harvests and efficiency.
Answer to Question 3
Although the people occupying the Korean peninsula have a homogeneous culture, the differences between the South and North emerged after the Second World War. Since the Korean peninsula had been a Japanese occupied territory, its surrender at the end of the SWW led to its division between the USSR and the United States of America. While the agreement was for the unification of the two Koreas under a single government, ideological differences led to the formation of two governments in Pyongyang and Seoul (Schwekendiek 52). Thus, the Soviet Union influenced the North and America the South.
The cold war between the USSR and the USA played out in the two Koreas with the North adopting the socialist ideology of the Soviet Union while the South became a capitalist country following the United States, and, as a result, they developed differently economically. A comparison of the two Koreas’ economies indicates that the South has industrialized with an open market policy while the North is faced with social challenges and periods of hunger (Schwekendiek 54). However, the situation in the North is exasperated by the government’s desire to control both social and economic direction of its population.
Ooi, Giok Ling, and Kai Hong Phua. “Urbanization and Slum Formation.” Journal of Urban Health, vol. 84, no. S1, 2007, pp. 27-34.
Salvi, Sergio. et al. “Nazareno Strampelli, the ‘Prophet’ of the Green Revolution.” The Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 151, no. 01, 2012, pp. 1-5.
Schwekendiek, Daniel. “Height and Weight Differences between North and South Korea.” Journal of Biosocial Science, vol. 41, no. 01, 2008, pp. 51-55.
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